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THE BUSHMAN'S SONG. "I'm travelling down the Castlereagh 
and I'm a station hand." Words by A. B. Paterson ; Music by E. J*. 
Truman. 2s. net ; post free, '2s. 2d. 

LAST WEEK. " Oh ! the new chum went to the back block run, but 
he should have gone there last week." Humorous song. Words by A. B 
Paterson ; Music by E. P. Truman. 2s. net ; post free, 2s. 2d. 

" A Bu=hnian'8 Song," with its capital chonis, has been wedded to a firm and spirited melody ; 
and there is a vein of quaint mclodj- in " Last W^ek " whicli fairly suits the humour of the veise — 
Sydiiiy Morning Herald. 

These two songs are musical, and should quickly become popular. — Neiocastlc Morninn Herald. 

Rattling good songs. . . . full of ias\\.— Uivhmond River Express. 

We highly recouunend them to male vocalists in search of a good song. — Laimceston Daily 
Teleriraph . 

As Llioiiiii and good rollicking songs they can be recommended.— CaiAoZtc Press. 

DAYLIGHT IS DYING. Words by A. B. Paterson ; Music by Rene 
Goring-Thumas. 2s. net ; post free, 2s. 2d. 

" Daylight is Diiiig," should prove popular. — Sydney ^torninf| Herald. 

A very attractive and melodious song. — Daily Teleyrnph. 

The music is attractive, and should prove popular. — Newcastle Herald. 

The simple grace of the music is in harmony with the \vorA3.—T<mii and Country Journal. 

Its simplicitj and sweetness should make it a general favourite. — Educational Gazette of 


This pretty song only requires to be known to become popular. — Presbyterian. 







^oohsellcrs to llje Unlbfrsilg 









X AiK o»^/ A^- 3 G 


In launching this little book upon the stormy 
waves of the sea of criticism I am not troubled 
by many fears. I believe that the name of 
Henry Parkes will yet be dear to the heart of 
every patriotic son of Federated Australia, and 
that all concerning him will be very precious in 
their eyes. The mistakes, the errors, and the 
failures of the last years of his life will be wiped 
away as one would brush dust from a beloved 
dead face. Who that is just will judge of him 
by the years between seventy and eighty ? No ! 
By the glorious aims, by the high hopes, by the 
great achievements, and the ringing eloquence 
of his grand manhood will he be judged; and 
when Australasia takes her place among the 
great nations of the world, his name will be 
inscribed in golden letters upon the annals of 
her history. And the very least of her sons 



may learn a lesson from his wondrous life, a 
lesson of high-souled courage, patient endur- 
ance, and marvellous perseverance. I send forth 
these pages to tell their simple story of how, in 
spite of bitter poverty, much hardship, and utter 
want of education, Henry Parkes fought his way 
to everlasting fame. 


Leichhardt, 11th July, 1896. 


On the 11 til of July, 1836, Henry Parkes and 
Clarinda Varney were married at tlie Cliurcli of 
England church at Edgbaston, a suburb of Bir- 
mingham, the only witness present being either 
the clerk or the verger. Clarinda Varney was the 
only daughter of Robert Varney, a man well to 
do in his little world. My mother used to say 
she had the blood of Varney, the villain of 
Kenihmrth, in her veins ; and we children 
would assure her that was nothing to be 
proud of. She left her home in consequence 
of cruel persecution from her step-mother, and 
her father never spoke to her again. Often 
have I sat on my little stool close to her side 
and listened to the never-tiring story of her 
sufferings and trials, brightened only by the 
devoted love between her and my father. I 
believe she was engaged to him for two years 


before she left lier home, and she married him 
some months afterwards, she being twenty-three 
and he twenty-one. They married without any 
provision for their wedded life, except the 
work they could obtain from day to day, and 
went back from Edgbaston to live in the little 
room in Birmingham where she had lodged 
while alone. My father's relatives were very 
good to her, and she used often to tell me about 
the daily visits she and her little brown dog paid 
to the old father of the husband she so fondly 
loved. They had a bitter struggle for existence, 
and lost two children. Then they decided to go 
to London, with an idea of emigrating to Aus- 
tralia, — which, to their untutored minds, must 
indeed have appeared a veritable land of convicts 
and blackfelloAvs, but still the 'land of promise' 
where the}' might prosper as they could not do 
at home. 

My father had three sisters — Sarah, Maria, 
and Eliza, These letters are chiefly addressed 
to the eldest, Sarah, to whom he was greatly 
attached, and of whom he thus writes to my 
mother in 1861 : — 

' All is now over. Poor Sarah died this 
' morning at two o'clock, Next to you and our 
' dear children I have now lost the dearest 


* creature that remained to ine upon earth. She 
'was a mother tome in my childhood, and all 
' through life she was doubly dear for her 
' meekly-borne sufferings. She, whose earthly 
' lot was one of uninterrupted trial and labour, 
' has now gone to eternal rest. God be praised 
' for his mercy in bringing me here by such an 
' accident to lighten the burden of her last 
' moments.' My father was then in England 
on a lecturing tour with the late William Bede 

The letters were given to me at Faulconbridge 
early in the eighties by my Aunt Maria, and it 
was her wish, and my father's also, that I should 
publish them after his death. He was the 
youngest of his family, and the last to die. And 
now I will leave the letters to speak for them- 







Letter One ... 


Letter Two... 


Letter Three 


Letter Four 


Letter Five 


Letter Six ... 


Letter Seven 


Letter Eight 


Letter Nine 


Letter Ten... 


Letter Eleven 


Letter Twelve 


Letter Thirteen 


Letter Fourteen 


Letter Fifteen 


Letter Sixteen 


Letter Seventeen 


Letter Eighteen 





Letter Nineteen 


Letter Twenty 


Letter Twenty-One 


Letter Twenty-Two 


Letter Twenty-Three .... 


Letter Twenty-Four 


Letter Twenty-Five 

... 103 

Letter Twenty-Six 

... Ill 

Letter Twenty-Seven ... 

... 115 

Letter Twenty-Eight ... 

... 117 

Letter Twenty-Nine 

... 126 

Letter Thirty 

... 128 

Letter Thirty-One 

... 133 

Letter Thirty-Two 

... 136 

Letter Thirty-Three ... 

... 140 

Appendix — 

Letter from Mr. J. G. Horn 


... 145 

The Emigi-ant's Farewell to 

lis Country . . . 

... 15a 

My Native Land 

... 152 



Sunday, 25th Noveviber, 1838. 

My Dear Sister, 

By tlie time you receive this letter I hope 
my father will have g-ot the better of the severe 
illness which he suffered under when I left 
Birmingham, and together with my poor dear 
mother, and you all, be better in health and 
spirits than I can hope for. As I did not get 
lodgings till late yesterday, I hope you will 
excuse my not writing before to-day. I shall 
now endeavour to tell you all that has passed 
since we parted. 

The train which we came up by left Birming- 
ham about one o'clock, and for the first fifty 
miles of the journey the rain and wind beat 
through the nothing but naked windows of our 


second-class carriage with such bitterness that I 
began to think we should surely be the subject 
of a tale in the ' Penny Storyteller/ entitled 
'The Weather Slain.' We saw very little of 
any interest on the way, except the tunnels, one 
of which is nearly two miles long. Had it been 
a hundred, we should not have been so murdered 
by the weather, but as it was, we were through 
it in five minutes. We saw nothing of Coventry 
but about a hundred poor men's houses, two 
church steeples, and two or three high chimneys, 
the line of road being cut through the rising 
ground on the right of the city several yards 
deep. The day cleared up as it died away, and 
the ghost of a devil that dragged us along tore 
out from Primrose Hill with the bright crescent 
moon above us in a calm and beautiful sky. In 
half an hour afterwards we were in London. 

I enquired of one of the company's porters 
where I could get lodged for the night, and he 
directed me to a coffee-house just outside the 
gates, and offered to carry our baggage there; 
but when we got to the gates the sentinel would 
not let him go out. That the fellow knew well 
enough, so I was obliged to have another to 
carry it the other six yards. A double expense 
to begin with. On Friday I found out Houldin's, 


and went there thinking that John might be able 
to tell me where I could get a lodging; but, after 
wasting all the morning, and being treated with 
'London gin' at my own expense, I was as 
forward as ever. In the afternoon I saw Horn- 
blower, but I succeeded no better for that day 
with him. He could do nothing for the first 
two or three hours but tell me how glad he was 
to see me, and stuff me with good things, and 
he then took me through the streets till nearly 
eight o'clock to show me the fine places. All 
the time Clarinda was waiting at the coffee 
house. The next morning he got me a very 
comfortable lodging at a respectable house in 
Hatton Gardens. We have a furnished room, 
and a good sized dressing closet, where we keep 
our bread and cheese, and our coals, &c., on the 
fourth floor, for six shillings per week, and find 
our own linen and crocks. Staying at the coffee 
house was very expensive, but I was afraid of 
going to strange lodgings, and am glad I did 
not. We have got out of about 24s. since we 
have been in London, though we have been as 
careful as we could. 

I can say nothing of how we are likely to 
succeed at present, but I am in good spirits. We 
were both so ill the first night after we got in 


that we could not get an hour's sleep, but are 
much better. 

I should very much like to have the dog, but 
will write further about it in my next, if you 
will be kind enough to keep him till then. 

Send the remains of the things by the first 
waggon. You had better put the brown paper 
package in the rabbit pen, and be sure that the 
boards are nailed do^vn on the top. 

Your affectionate brother, 
H. P. 

Give my best love to my mother. 


December 6th, 1838. 

My Dear Sister, 

I received tlie goods all safe, and was much 
refreshed with your kind letter, and am in 
rather better spirits than when I wrote last 
to you, having obtained two or three little 
orders, and promise of more; but things are 
as flat as they can be here at present, and 
my situation is anything but agreeable. I think, 
however, of putting my lathe and things up as 
soon as I can get them from the waggon office 
(which I cannot do till I can turn the few made- 
up goods I brought with me into money), and 
begin to do the little work which I have got, in 
hopes of getting more when that is done. 

My expectations of London have met with 



disappointment in nearly every particular, but I 
will not talk of that. You will remember that I 
hinted to you that, in case I did not succeed in 
London, I should go farther. I had almost for- 
gotten that I ever had such thoughts, among 
the fresh and astonishing scenes of this strange, 
glorious place, till it seemed as if there was no 
place for me among the countless multitude of 
its inhabitants. My thoughts then returned to 

The information which we have obtained since 
we have been here respecting Australia has 
determined both Clarinda and myself to make 
up our minds to emigrate to a land which holds 
out prospects so bright and cheering to unhappy 
Enorlishmen, thouo^h at the distance of sixteen 
thousand miles. I have been to the GTovernment 
emigration office to ascertain what assistance 
they afford to mechanics wishing to emigrate, 
and we can have a free passage, being young 
and having no children. The first chartered 
ship, I believe, will sail in March, and that 
vessel, I trust, will convey us safe to Sydney. 
In the meantime we have much to do, and I 
must necessarily trouble you not a little. You 
have ever been so kind to me, and have sacri- 
ficed so much for my welfare, that I am ashamed 


to ask you for fnrtlier assistance ; but I hope a 
time ■will come wlien I shall have it in my power 
to prove my gratitude. 

In the first place, as I must have a certificate 
of my being of good character, to procure a free 
passage, I want Maria to obtain signatures to it. 
The persons whom I have selected as the best to 
sign it are : Rev. Greorge Cheatle, minister of 
Lombard-street chapel ; Mr. B. Hudson, book- 
seller. Bull-street ; Mr. R. Matthison, stationer, 
Edgbaston-street ; and Mr. Pickard, ironmonger, 
Bull-street. I am not very well kno'svn to any 
of these, least of all to Mr. Cheatle ; but the 
certificate must be signed by a clergyman or 
minister, and he is the only person of that class 
who can know anything of me, from living in his 
own neighbourhood and being with Mr. Houldin, 
a near neighbour of his, so long, and my brother 
George and his wife attending his chapel. I 
think he must know enough of me to justify him 
in signing a paper of no more consequence. I 
have written a letter to him, which you will 
deliver, and allow him to read before you ask 
him for his signature. All I know of Mr. 
Pickard is having sold him goods, which I got 
up in Birmingham, and bought of him. My 
knowledge of Mr. Hudson, and his of me, is 


similar. To liim I have written a letter, too. 
Mr. Matthison knows me rather better. To the 
signatui'es of these gentlemen I should like to 
have added those of Mr. Porter, surgeon, Broms- 
grove-street, Mr. Wright, thread manufacturer, 
Bromsgrove-sti'eet ; but as I am in debt to Mr. 
Porter, and have been for a shameful long time, 
perhaps you had better not apply to him. I 
leave that to you. Mr. Wright, having been 
in the habit of seeino; me more or less for so 
many years, must be a fitter person to judge of 
my character than any of the above. If you 
can get the signatures of all six, I shall be ex- 
tremely glad. The certificates which they are 
to sign are marked at the top of leaf No. 2 and 
No 4, and each signature should comprise name, 
calling, and place of residence. For example : 
B, Hudson, bookseller, Birmingham. The other 
two certificates are to be signed by Mr. Houldin, 
my late master, only. They are marked No. 1 
and No. 3; get these signed first. And then 
Clarinda must have a certificate, also — that 
marked No. 5 to be signed by Mr. Joseph 
Hardy, paper manufacturer. Great Hampton 
Row, and No. 6 to be signed by Mr. Cheatle, 
Chester-street, and Mr. Derrington, town mis- 
sionary, next door but one or two to Garrison 


Lane's Chapel. You will be kind enough to 
explain to Mr. Cheatle — if you have any need 
to do so — that the name was ' Varney ' at 
the shop in Mosely-street ; also to the latter 
gentleman, and that she was for seven years a 
teacher in Garrison Lane's school. Be pleased 
to have Mr. Cheatle's name first. 

As we shall be about four months on our voy- 
age, and as there is no washing allowed on board, 
we must have at least fifteen changes of clothes, 
&c., each, be they ever such poor ones. There- 
fore the next thing I want is, if Eliza or my 
mother can find time, and are able to do so, 
for them to make some of these garments for 
us, as fast as we can get them. 

I must now speak of things more familiar. 
First of all, of my little dog. If you, or someone 
belonging to me, could keep him when I am 
gone, I should be very glad, for that little, 
unhappy animal seems a very part of my un- 
happy heart. If he cannot be kept among you, 
dispose of him in the best way you can. At any 
rate be kind enough to keep him till I am gone. 
With regard to the books, if you can sell any of 
them or exchange any of them for cloth for 
shirts, &c., I should be glad. ' Caleb Williams ' 
and the ' Works of Shakespeare ' I should like 


for myself, but, of course, can do without tliem. 
But secure enough to pay Mr. Anderson and to 
pay the postage of letters from me. 

I hope my father has some work to do — if he 
is able to do it — and that my mother and Eliza 
are as well as usual. Be sure to look at them 
while they sign the papers, and see they do 
not sign the wrong, Clarinda's being both on 
the same leaf. Give our love to all. "We will 
send you full particulars of our adopted country 
before we go. 



December 7th. 
P.S. — l^he money you sent will just do to get 
the things from the waggon office, but there is 
one thing that pains me in receiving it — the 
thought of the injury which you must do your- 
selves in being kind to me. 



December 7th, 1838. 

My Dear Sistee, 

When we received your kind parcel, I liad just 
finished a long letter to you, from which you will 
learn we have got on rather better since my last. 
I was quite overpowered with the sense of 
your kindness towards us when I saw the four 
half-crowns, which came as seasonably as unex- 
pectedly, for we had only fourpence left when 
we received them. Money does not go very far 
here, everything almost that we have to buy 
being dearer than it was in Birmingham. Coal, 
for instance, is Is. 6d. cwt., mutton lOd. a 
pound, potatoes Is. a pound, and everything is of 
an inferior quality. We had one piece of bacon 
since we have been here, and it tasted like soap 
and fish mixed. The water comes out of the 
Thames, which all the filth of the town is emptied 



into. They say it is cleansed before it comes to 
us, but all I know is that it is quite yellow. This 
water we must drink, as it is, in tea or coffee ; 
as for milk, that is quite out of the question, 
none under 4d. per quart ; and beer as good as 
the worst in Birmingham, so far as I can learn, 
would be a novelty. Gin is all the ' go * 
with the Cockneys. But I am comforted on this 
score with the thought that I shall be far away 
when the droughty weather comes. The fogs, 
too, choke us. The cats (for there are six or 
seven at the house where we lodge) make horrid 
noises day and night, but perhaps all Cockneys 
do not think it necessary to keep as many as the 
old ladies where we lodge, so I will not call that 
a London nuisance. I tell you these bits of 
news merely to make you merry, for I feel half 
merry myself. 

I am in high hopes of Australia, as well I may 
be when I compare my chance of living there 
with my chance of doing so here ; but I cannot 
give you much information now or I should be 
up all night. The colony of New South Wales 
is three times as large as England, Scotland, 
Ireland, and Wales, and as beautiful a country 
as this. The soil produces almost everything 
which this produces, together with pomegranates^ 


oranges, lemons, figs, &c. Land can be bouglit 
in some of the towns for seven pounds per acre, 
in the second town in the colony for twenty 
pounds, and in some parts of the country for five 
shillings per acre. Mechanics can get foi^ty and 
fifty shillings a week, and buy sugar for two 
shillings a pound ; tea for two shillings ; beef, 
twopence a pound ; wine, sixpence per bottle ; 
rent, four shillings per week, Sydney, the 
capital of the colony, contains 25,000 inhabitants. 
However, my hopes are not extravagant, though 
I make sure of getting rich and coming over 
soon to fetch all of you. I had forgotten to say 
the climate is the healthiest in the world. 

I am very glad the dog gets on so well, and 
hope you will be able to keep him for a play- 
fellow for little Tom. I am very sorry they are 
going to take my father's garden, but I wish he 
was going with me to Australia, and he could 
then buy a five shilling acre of land and make 
another. And if you can persuade my mother 
to live half a dozen years longer I would come 
and fetch her too, and she should have a dairy ; 
for cows are only four pounds each, the very 

Your affectionate brother, 



Deceviher 20th, 1838. 

My Dear Sister, 

I delayed acknowledging tlie receipt of the 
parcel containing tlie papers, &c., till I liad 
ascertained whetlier or not we could go out in 
the ship which sails on the 29th. I did not get 
a decisive answer till last Tuesday, when I was 
told that the list of the Roxburgh Castle 
was made up, and we could not go by her, there 
being eight or ten parties which she could not 
take besides us. The next ship which we may 
get a free passage by sails on the 26th 
March next year. I hope we shall go then. 
Not going now has sadly disheartened us both, 
but it may be for the best. In case I should 



not remind you again of it, all letters (wlienever 
we go) should have time to reach, us two or three 
days before the ship goes, as we must be on 
board at least a day before she sails from 
Gravesend, which is about twenty-six miles 
from London. 

I hope none of you are unhappy at the thought 
of my leaving you, or will think much about me 
when I am gone. However I may fare on the 
opposite side of the globe, I do not think it can 
much more darken my prospects of the future. 
It is hard for me to think that I have seen my 
dear father and mother, in all probability, for 
the last time, but the thought is brightened by 
the humiliating recollection that I have been 
more a burden than a help to them, and the 
hope that if we never meet again in this world 
of change, we shall in a happier and changeless 
one. Give my best love to them, and tell my 
brothers to love them, and be more dutiful to 
them than I have been, and give my love to my 
sisters, Maria and Eliza. I wish you all a very 
happy Christmas, though I shall not be with 
you on that day. I shall think of you all a 
thousand times in the solitude of our little room 
in the heart of London, and I hope to spend 
many a Christmas day with you, my brothers 


and sisters^ tliougli noue of us may be then young. 
Thank Maria for the trouble she has had in 
getting the signatures, and for all she had done 
for me. We should be happy to hear from James, 
and hope he had got into something likely to do 
him good. Clarinda wrote to her father this 
week, but did not enclose it in this parcel, as it 
seemed more desirable to save you trouble than 
him expense. We are both blessed with good 
health for this unhealthy place, except that 
Clarinda has an ugly cold, and I have been 
murdered with the toothache for two or three 
days; but neither of us is happy. I have 
nothing to do at present; hope I shall have 
after Christmas. 

I send a small book, which contains a great 
deal of information on the subject of Emigration 
to Australia, and part of a journal of a voyage 
to Sydney ; also ' Campbell's Poems,' among 
which are some beautiful * Lines on the Depar- 
tui-e of Emigrants to New South Wales.' Be 
pleased to take particular care of this volume, 
and return it in the course of a month ; also a 
very interesting book entitled ' Carwell,' out of 
which you may pick a good deal of knowledge 
relative to New South Wales, but you must read 
it quick, and return it if you are sending a 


parcel next week, as it is a library book. The 
other book you will be pleased to return also. 

If I can get a regular job after Christmas till 
we go I will send the money for my shoes by the 
time appointed. 

We have sent a few trifling things for you as 
Xmas boxes. I wish we could have sent some- 
thing better. For the present, farewell. 




December 31st, 1838. 

My Dear Sister, 

I have just received your parcel. Am sorry 
my mother is so ill, and hope she will be much 
better by when you get this. Am extremely 
glad my father is well. Shall be very glad of 
the seeds. Thought of writing to him before 
we went away for some, but there is plenty of 
time yet. 

We are both in the enjoyment of health at 
present, but we have fared but badly since 
the date of my last, having been two or 
three days without anything to eat, in- 
cluding Christmas day, except that on that 
day we were made to taste Miss Irvine's plum- 
pudding and wine, which we were by no means 


unwilling to do. I tramped about London 
Christmas Eve for five or six hours to sell some 
work, but did not then succeed in doing so, nor 
till the following Thursday, when I could only 
get about half my price in Birmingham. Things 
are here so extremely awkward. I tell these 
things to you merely because I do not feel 
justified in hiding any portion of the gloomy side 
of the picture before me from so kind and dear 
a friend as you have ever proved to me ; or if I 
had another motive for doing so, it is because I 
shall be able to look upon my distresses with 
more fortitude when I know there are those, 
though at a distance, who sympathise with me 
in them. But believe me, I do not tell you of 
my misery to make you miserable. Oh no ! I 
hope you will not be more unhappy on my 
account than if I was living in the most perfect 
prosperity, though I wish your sympathy in 
believing I do not deserve all I suffer. 

I am glad the dog gets fat and forgetful of his 
old master. I suppose he would have nothing 
to do with me now. However, I wish the old 
beggar a long life, and much of the good things 
by the way, and an easy death at the end. 

I am very thankful for your arrangements 
respecting the clothes, and Clarinda's thanks to 


her Aunt, when you see her father again. I 
shall not answer my brother's letter at present, 
as I may have more to say before we go. 

Any information which my father can give me 
respecting the getting of land may be of use to 
me till such time as he comes out to the 'land 
of promise ' himself, which I shall depend on 
his doing in a year or two; though he must 
recollect that December and January are summer 
months in New South Wales, and that they have 
two harvests in a year. I send the Dispatch 
newspaper, which contains part of a letter just 
received from Sydney, and from an uninterested 
party, which you will see is very encouraging to 
emigrants. I feel confident James would do 
exceedingly well there, but he must judge for 

Your affectionate brother, 
H. P. 

P.S. — Give our love to our parents and 
brothers and sisters, and Tom and the dog con- 
jointly, as he is his bedfellow. Many thanks for 
the pie. It was good ! 

Perhaps 1 shall not send you again under 
three weeks or a month, on account of expense. 


January 1st, 1836. 

My Dear Sister, 

I am obliged to send to you again, so soon 
upon my last letter, as I expect we shall embark 
much earlier than I stated to you. A ship goes 
on the 29th of this month, and I believe we shall 
go in that. My chief reason for writing now 
is that we must have a certificate of being in 
sound health from a respectable medical man. I 
send a form of one on this sheet. You will be 
pleased to get Mr. Porter, or if he has left the 
town, Mr. Charles Porter, to sign it, since I 
never had any other medical attendant, and the 
gentleman who attended Clarinda has left the 
country, so that it is impossible to apply to him. 



All that it affirms lie could readily ascertain by 
applying to Mr. Houldin and Clarinda's friends. 
If you can possibly get all the signatures by 
Thursday afternoon send them in a parcel to 
me the same evening. Take it to the Albion 
coach office early enough, say four or five o'clock, 
so that I shall be sure to get them at the office 
here the next morning. I would rather have 
the certificates in Mr. Porter's own writing. I 
only have written this that it may be something 
like the prescribed printed form of the Govern- 
ment emigration committee, but the one I send 
will do. 

The clothes can be made up on the passage. 
If you can exchange any of the books for cloth 
iOr them, or stockings that would do for either 
of us, or four or five handkerchiefs, you will 
befriend us. If Booker would make my shoes, 
and you think you could pay him in two months 
after I am gone, I should be very glad to have 

I shall write to my father, to Eliza, and to my 
brothers before I go. I think you will hear from 
us if we go this month about next October, but 
not before. I shall send to you once or twice 
before we go. 

Clarinda will want half a pound of white 


cotton and shirt buttons, if you can exchange 
books for them. Give our best love to all friends. 

Your affectionate brother, 



January 28th, 1839. 

My Dear Sistee, 

This letter, I hope, will find you all well at 
Birmingham. Clarinda and myself are neither 
one thing or another. I have at last obtained 
a situation in one of the oldest and largest turn- 
ing manufactories in London. I have been there 
two weeks to-morrow. The work which I am upon 
is so heavy that it almost masters me — having 
to turn twine boxes (such as you see on trades- 
men's counters), which take 2 cwt. of wood to 
one dozen. I think we are certain to leave the 
country in March, but shall know more about it 
next week. We shall have a hard struggle till 
then, but I hope we shall be able to get through 
it. I have been obliged to part with many of 



my tools since Xmas, to buy us bread, as we 
cannot live in London for less than 20s. per 
week, including rent ; but I hope I shall be able 
to get as many in their place as will enable me 
to carry on the turning at Sydney. If you have 
the calico, please to send it for Clarinda to work 
upon, and let me hear from you as soon as you 
can, as we are very anxious to learn how my 
father and mother and all of you are. I am 
sorry I have no money to send for the shoes at 
present. Please to let Thomas take the small 
parcel to Mr. Knott's, Swan Hotel Yard — need 
not wait for answer. More in my next. 

Yours affectionately, 

Our love to all. 


February 10th, 1839. 

My Dear Sister, 

We received your letter dated January 27 on 
February 1st. We were glad to hear from you 
— it seemed so long since your last. Were ex- 
tremely sorry, but not surprised, to hear of dear 
mother being so ill. I hope she is now restored to 
her usual health. We were much hurt by your 
account of the unfavourable circumstances at- 
tendant on Maria's journey, and sincerely hope 
she is perfectly recovered from her distressing 
illness. We hope, too, that by this time your 
own severe cold ' has had its day and been for- 
gotten.' We ourselves are both rather poorly. 

I have not been able to see Bell's Life, but 
tell my father that my high hopes are undimini- 


shed ; tliat I have no doubt of being happy and 
prosperous in Australia. And I have much 
better opportunities of getting correct informa- 
tion on the subject here than you in Birmingham 
can have. With respect to the tales of private 
individuals^ they in general are altogether un- 
worthy of attention. There is a person lodging 
in the house where we live, who has been to 
Sydney. And there was a surgeon's family in 
the rooms under ours, when we came, who went 
out at their own expense last month ; but we 
never asked a single question of either party. 
A girl that was apprenticed to Miss Irvine went 
out to New South Wales some years ago. She 
returned to England about four years ago, the 
wife of a celebrated missionary. She made 
Miss Irvine's her home during her stay in Lon- 
don. After laying out several hundreds of 
pounds in expensive articles of furniture she 
went back again to New South Wales, more 
glad again to leave than she was when she ar- 
rived in her native country. So you see we 
could obtain some news about Australia without 
going far afield, but we can go to sources so 
much superior that it would be waste of time 
to do so. That an ^official' account should 
appear in the True Sun, or any other paper. 


to discourage persons from emigrating, quite 
puzzles me. If it is meant by ' official ' tliat 
it issues from the Colonial Government, when it 
is the Colonial Government that is paying for 
the passage of the hundreds of emigrants who 
are continually being sent out, not only from 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, but from France, 
Italy, and other places on the Continent, I 
think Mr. J. Yarney must have been mistaken, 
if the report he saw was concerning New South 
Wales, as to the ' officialness ' of its character. 
However, he is not likely to be injured by going 
to Australia ; for assuredly no man will reach 
there who falls back at the first, or the hun- 
dredth, evil report he hears concerning the 

I think leaving Birmingham was the best 
step we ever took, and I think leaving London 
will be the next best. We have suffered a great 
deal since we have been in London. Were 
obliged to pawn almost everything we had 
before I could get anything to do. I had some 
difficulty in obtaining my present situation. The 
reason they took me in was this : they had but 
one man in the manufactory who would under- 
take the work which I am upon, it is so ex- 
cessively heavy, and he would rather have 


nothing to do witli it ; so they offered me a trial 
at this hard job, though, as I came from the 
country, they seemed to doubt whether I should 
be able to manage it, as it is also rather a difficult 
job ; but the}^ say now that I am quite an adept 
at it, and I believe they would rather I stayed 
with them than went to Australia. We were 
also a little behind with our rent. I can get, 
by working hard, about five or six shillings a 
day, but have not been able to make near full 
time, owing to having to go to the emigration 
office, and one thing and another. It is a very 
difficult thing to get a free passage. They would 
not even let me leave my certificates till last 
Monday, though I tendered them time after 
time. They would not give me a passage at 
first, because I was a turner, as persons of such 
a trade as mine must, when they get to Sydney, 
work on their own account. They take it for 
granted that persons who are taken out free of 
expense have not the means to do otherwise. 
There are crowds of applicants every day at 
the emigration office for them to choose out of, 
and they keep them back and put them off from 
time to time, very vexatiously, it seems to me, 
to try whether they are really anxious and re- 
solved upon going, lest persons should go out 


of a mere capricious love of change. They will 
not take anybody who has a young and helpless 
family, except such mechanics as carpenters^ 
masons, smiths, shoemakers, etc., etc., who will 
be sure to earn enough to provide for them 
when they get there. Agricultural labourers 
cannot earn so much, therefore they are scrupu- 
lous at taking such of this class as emigrants as 
have families, and they will endeavour to as- 
certain whether you can pay for your passage 
yourself before they will agree to take you. 
Mr. Marshall told me, when I was speaking 
about James, that he must pay for his boy him- 
self; if it is so, the child's passage will cost £8, 
but I hope they will yet agree to take him free. 
We shall see when they have the certificates. 
My plan is, if I get tools again to take out 
with me, to get a job at farm work or anything 
else that offers itself till I can save money 
enough to begin to work on my own account, 
unless something better should turn out for me. 
If I cannot take tools with me I must wait till 
I can obtain them from England, as I do not 
expect they can be procured nearer, which will 
be a monstrous calamity. It is said that a few 
turners might work profitably on their own 
account at Sydney. Still, however, I think it 


is not improbable that I may get hold of some- 
thing better. The country is the best place for 
making money, A man of good common sense 
and active habits^ if he can but save a little to 
begin with, may get rich there in no time. I 
have no doubt of James getting on. I think he 
will have a better chance than I shall ; at any 
rate at first. But persons going to a strange 
country, where everyone is taught only to take 
care of himself, and going there friendless and 
without money, must expect to meet with difii- 
culties, and to suffer privations and hardships. 
If I do not meet with such I shall indeed be 

Do not be at the expense of sending the two 
books, or anything- else that we can do without, 
as instead of being able to send you any money 
for what you have already done for us, I find 
from a calculation which I have made that I shall 
be £4 short, unless something unforeseen turns 
out in getting the tools, which I ought by no 
means to omit taking with me. I shall be sure 
to go from England penniless, but I have some 
hope of getting something to do on the ship, at 
which I may earn a pound or two during our 
voyage, and if I can do so, it may be of the 
greatest use to us when we arrive at Sydney. I 


suppose we are sure to go next month. Tlie ship 
Lady Raffles, which leaves Gravesend on 27th 
of March, finally leaves Plymouth on the 8th 
April, If we go in her everything should be 
here by this day six weeks at the latest. 

If James and his wife have linen to last them 
for a month, Clarinda and Anne can make the 
other on the voyage, but they must bring the 
cloth ready washed. James will have no time 
to lose. Tell him, and also John Varney, if you 
see him again, the substance of this letter as far 
as relates to emigration. 

You will see an interesting account of the 
effects of transportation on society in New South 
Wales in the number of Chamhers' Edinburgh 
Journal sent. 

We have paid our rent out of the money which 
we made of the woodwork of the lathe, and other 
things brought from Birmingham. We could 
not take them with us. 

I send the paper which you had before, for 
you to keep for anyone to see who thinks of 
following us. Also a small pamphlet, which you 
can keep for the same purpose. 

Your affectionate brother, 



P.S. — Give our sincere and united love to our 
beloved father^ and motlier^ and to Maria, Eliza, 
James and family, George and wife, Thomas, 
dog, cat, and all. Tell my mother I am only 
unhappy when I think of her. 


February 12th, 1839. 

My Deae Sister, 

Among other tilings, we must get you or 
Maria, some time before your last parcel, to go 
to Edgbaston cliurcli and obtain two certificates 
of our marriage. They will cost a shilling each. 
You must ask of the sexton, or beadle, for Mr. 
Harrison, the clerk. The best time, I think, 
would be on a Monday morning, between nine 
and ten o'clock, or Sunday morningbef ore service. 
Perhaps the latter time would be the best. 

Tell James if he should want to buy any shoes 
before he goes that he can get them cheapest in 





March 1st, 1839. 

My Deae Sister, 

We received your last parcel on Sunday, and 
were very much rejoiced to learn that father and 
mother were then both better. 

I am rather unwell, and unable to stick to my 
work as closely as I ought to do. The consequence 
of which, together with having to lose time for 
other purposes, is that I do not earn more than 
it just takes to keep us. This week I shall not 
earn sufficient. I have had a slight cough ever 
since I have been in London, which comes upon 
me chiefly at night, and is worse now than it 
ever has been. I also have a kind of soreness 
and stiffness at my chest, and can get no com- 
fortable sleep. I verily believe I have not had 


a good ni gilt's rest since I have been up here. 
What sleep I do get seems to oppress me more 
than refresh me, and is very broken* Being pent 
in a frowsy London garret, with no one to speak 
to, not even a dog, and breathing the same 
impure air from week's end to week's end, has 
made Clarinda very poorly, and half unhappy. 
Nevertheless, tell my father and mother and 
all who enquire after us that we are well and 
happy, as I believe we both shall be when we 
leave this irksome place. 

I shall not write more than one other letter to 
you before we go, and that on the last day 
before we join the ship, because of the expense, 
so I shall endeavour to say all I have to say in 
this. I have strong hopes of getting a good 
situation as soon as I arrive at Sydney, as all who 
have hitherto gone out in Mr. Marshall's ships 
have been engaged within a week of the time of 
landing, and if I get a situation at £50 or £60 
per year and provisions and a house to live in, I 
shall be able to send some money home in a 
year and a half from the present time, and 
enough soon to pay all I owe at Birmingham. 
And that will be a happy time with me. I shall 
write to you by the first homeward boiind vessel 
we meet after we have been out eight or ten 


weeks, so you may expect to hear from us in about 
six months, and again at the end of m year. And 
T hope I shall he able to tell you how I like New 
South Wales. I wish Maria could come up to 
London before we go, for I should dearly like to 
look upon some one of you again, but I know it 
cannot be, and blame myself for naming it. 

With respect to the likeness, I would rather 
no more was said abovit it, as I am unable, how- 
ever cheaply it was done, to be at the expense, 
and I am most unwilling you should be, but I 
leave the matter with you. If things were not 
so very awkward I should dearly like for you to 
have both mine and Clarinda's. Yon may get 
a portrait, a pretty good likeness, for about six or 
seven shillings. I do not mean one of those 
black profiles. 

I must now conclude with many thanks and 
good wishes. 

Give our sincere love to all. 





February 13th, 1SS9. 

My Dear Sister, 

I am quite out of patience to receive James's 
certificates, as there is now not a minute's time for 
him to lose if he is to go on the 27th of next month. 
When I wrote the letter which you receive with 
this I was surprised I had not heard from him, 
but made sure I should hear in a day or two, or 
[ should have sent it off then, requesting him to 
send me the papers immediately. I am very 
unwilling to trouble you before I hear, but dare 
not delay any longer, lest you should not have 
received my last parcel safe. If by chance you 
have not done so, let James have directly the 
printed emigration paper, which you will find in 
the present parcel. He will find a foi-m of 



certificate on the second page of it, and can get 
the clergyman or some other gentleman at 
Yardley to write him a certificate from it, stating 
explicitly what he is competent of doing, etc., 
etc., and get it signed as respectably as he can, 
and as soon as possible, and send it to me, 
together with a certificate of his marriage, and 
one of yonng William's age. 

If you should have sent to me before you 
receive this, when I get hold of the papers I 
will lose no time in going to the ofiice, and will 
write vou asuin about the middle of next week. 

The last parcel I sent off about a fortnight 

I have not much more time, nor have I much 
more to say at present. Give our sincere love to 
all our friends, and may God bless you all now 
and for ever. 




February 17th, 1839. 

My Dear Sister, 

We received your last parcel on Friday after- 
noon, and were botli very sorry to hear of poor 
father's misfortune, and sincerely hope he is now 
recovering, and that you will be able to inform 
us in your next that he is quite out of danger. 
We hope that poor mother is also much better, 
though we know too surely that her allotted 
portion in this distressful world will be little else 
than pain and bitterness. This we know, alas ! 
and have not the power to assuage one single 
sorrow that oppresses her. But her time here 
is short. We feel it is so, and that we shall never 
again behold that careworn countenance, which 
no transient light but that of the love she felt 



for her children ever softened into a liappy 
look. Poor dear mother ! How good a mother 
she has been to me ! How glad when I have 
been successful in any little undertaking ! How 
desirous to help me when I have been in any 
little difficulty ! Oh ! how happy I have been 
in that little old home in Moseley-street, after 
my day's work was done at the brickyard, as I 
have sat by the fire in my clayey clothes, and 
she took my hand and held it in her's, and told 
me parts of Robinson Crusoe to while away the 
dull hours till you came home from Attsop's. 
Yes, I was happy then, though dear father was 
lying in a distant debtor's prison. 

Beloved father and mother, I feel as if they 
were already in their graves. A father and 
mother bowed down with years of affliction, and 
steeped in poverty and wretchedness. The very 
thought seems to make me unhappy for ever, 
when I know that half the circumference of the 
globe will shortly lie between us. Farewell, my 
father and mother, my fond affectionate parents. 
God Almighty bless them, and provide for their 
few remaining" years better than I can hope they 
will be pi'ovided for. May they be daily sur- 
prised with comforts, and may floods of unex- 
pected joy continually descend into their hearts. 


Another letter, and another, antl perhaps 
another, and then my next letter will be dated 
on the l)lue, wide ocean, where I can have no 
answer — and then more than a long weary year 
must pass away before I can hear from you 
again. Yes, my beloved sister, I shall soon 
leave you, even as you come to me in your 
affectionate letters. The very name of Bir- 
mingham will no longer meet my eye, except 
when I unconsciously write it on some part of 
the ship that bears me over the beaming waters, 
or on some gloomy tree in the wilderness of 
Australia. I shall hear no more of Birmingham 
except from my own tongue, or from my weep- 
ing wife's, Avhen we think of those dear friends 
who live there, and of those angel-infants of our 
own, who sleep there in their little graves. And 
when I do hear from you again, will it be of 
death ? Alas ! my forebodings are very painful. 
Still, I hope it will be far othei-wise. I hope, 
though I hope with trembling, that I shall hear 
of your being happier, far happier, than when I 
leave you. 

If we go alone (and they will not take my 
brother unless he can pay for his son's passage), 
the thought of you will be all we shall have to 
relieve us from our loneliness, and that thought 


will be mingled with tJie last of our lives, should 
we meet with a watery grave. 

Your affectionate brother, 


P.S. — 1 suppose we shall be certain to go in 
the Lady Rafies, March 27th, as Mr. Marshall 
has promised to take us. She is a ver}'' fine 
ship, 1000 tons burden, frive our sincere love 
to our parents, and to all. 


February 18, 1839. 

My Dear Father, 

My sister, in a letter which i received last 
Friday, informed me of your sudden and alarm- 
ing illness; but I hope you are now much better, 
and trust that I shall learn from her next letter 
that you are safel}^ restored to your former state 
of health. I had the pain of learning from the 
same letter of the increased illness of my poor 
mother. This did not surprise me, but I sin- 
cerely hope I shall be surprised the next time I 
hear from yini by the assurance of her being 
more comfortable and happy. He Avho, in His 
wisdom and chastening^ love, has so lona* and so 
heavily afflicted my beloved mother, and who 
now has brought you, my dear father, to the 



very door of death — He, and only He, can sup- 
port you both in your trials and distresses, and 
I trust He will. I sincerely hope that the Father 
of all mercies, in the exercise of his unbounded 
goodness, will provide for you in your last days, 
and bless you as you descend into the grave. 
And when I can no longer, or but seldom, hear 
how you fare in this world of trouble, you may 
be far happier than I ever knew you. Trusting 
that I shall soon hear that both of yon are much 
better, I remain, my dear father. 

Your affectionate son, 


Accept, dear parents, the united love of 
Clarinda and myself. 


March 10th, 1839. 

My Dear Sister, 

We received your last on Friday afternoon, 
and were very glad to hear that all were then so 
well. Hope my dear mother will continue so, 
and that my father is quite recovered. I am 
afraid they must be suffering very much in con- 
sequence of my father not being alile to Avork. 
It also grieves me to think how much you must 
be injuring yourself to assist me. 

With respect to my brother James and his 
going to Australia, I believe he has never yet 
thought deeply enough on so great an under- 
taking: as that of removing^ to the distance of 
sixteen thousand miles. The distance is tre- 
mendous, when the globe itself is but twenty- 


four thousand miles round, and 1 think he has 
got hold of the notion which many persons have, 
that Government is glad to get anyone willing 
to go — as if they only sought the pleasuie of 
paying £40 or £50 to enable one and another 
family, whom they know nothing of, to remove 
from this country to New South Wales ! The 
funds for the purpose of free emigration are 
raised only from the sale of land in the colon}'^, 
and, therefoi-e, anyone may know it must he hut 
limited. There are only six or seven ships going 
in the course of the present year from London 
which take out emigrants free of expense, '^lliese 
ships are far superior to any other that go to 
Sydney, and always sail on the appointed <lays, 
consequently more persons who pay their own 
passage will go out in these ships than in any 
other; so that only a few, to make up the ship's 
number, go out free, perhaps not more than four 
or five families in a ship on an average, for it is 
not likely that they will take persons at the 
expense of Government if others will go at their 
own expense. Mr. Marshall ottered to take 
James at the payment of £9 for William. He 
and his wife and child would have been taken 
sixteen thousand miles, and wholly provided for 
during the voyage for less than eleven shillings 


per week, saying lie was sixteen weeks on the 
voyage. It will cost him a deal more than that 
to live at home during the time, and suppose he 
has no work, or very little ! It seems strange 
to me that he could not find the money, but it is 
too late to talk of this now. 

One certificate of marriage will do if j^ou have 
not already obtained them. Please send the 
broken saAvs and old pattern cards as they are. 
The hand-saw from Atkin's should be about 27 
inches from the handle. I think that is about 
the size, but am not certain. I should very 
much like to take with me a carpenter's brace 
and bits, as I feel certain it would be of immense 
use to me, but am afraid I shall not be able to 
do so. However, I shall be obliged to you if 
you will ascertain the price (as all such things 
are much dearer in London than with you), and 
send me word in your next. Mr. Edmonds^ in 
the Horse Fair, opposite Thorpe-street, Avhom, 
you will remember, I did some work for about 
two years ago, is a maker of them. I believe 
there are 36 bits to the brace. You will only 
have the trouble of delivering the note directed 
to him, and waiting an answer. I shall send my 
last parcel the latter end of this week, and if I 
can have it I will send the money then. 


Ask my fathei' to be pleased to write to me, 
if it is only two oi' three lines, in your next. I 
shall write to Cleorge, to Eliza, and to Tom, in 
my last parcel. 

Yours trul}', 



March W, 183!J. 

My Dear Sister, 

I received your kind letter but I know not 
how to answer it. Mv heart feels bursting' with 
gratitude to you all. I can only thank you now, 
but may I live to see the happy day when we 
shall get all of you who are willing to Australia. 
I will then try to show you how thankful I am. 
My Henry is too bad to sa}'^ I am unhappy. T 
shall never be uuhapp}^ while 1 have him to 
make me happy. But I have been very uneasy 
about my father. I was afraid I should not even 
get a letter from him, and the shilling was more 
than I expected. You have only seen a specimen 
of what he has been to me for the last ten or 
twelve years. But he is my father, and I do 


love liim; you can, therefore, guess what I have 
felt. I thank you for asking him to send me 
something, but do not ask him again. It must 
be so unpleasant to yourself. I feel more happy 
now that I have heard from him. I am in very 
good spirits, and though I am a little ill 
sometimes, I think I am stronger than I used 

to be I am very glad we are 

going, for I believe if we were to stay in London 
it would kill Henry outright in a short time. 
Thank my sister Maria for the dress ; I like it 
very much. . . . Give my love to Thomas, 
I often think how he will be altered when 
we see him again, and to poor mother, too. We 
often think of her and weep. I am glad the 
dog will not let anyone hurt Maria. I hope he 
will take the same care of all of you. Give my 
love to dear father and mother, and then a long 
farewell, and may God bless you till we meet 

Your affectionate sister, 


P.S. — My father is under a mistake about my 
Uncle Taylor. He is at Hobart's Town in Van 
Diemen's Land. We shall go six thousand 
miles beyond there. 


P.S. by H. P. — My good lady has made a bit 
of a mistake in this last statement. Hobart's 
Town is not very many days from Sydney. 

Note. — I have given only extracts from this letter, as it 
refers mainly to things vrhich her sisters-in-law offered to 
provide for my mother during the voyage. The letter has 
pinned to it the following note from Maria Parkes : — ' The 
one shilling named was obtained from Mr. Varney, by my 
sister Sarah, after two hours' hard talking to him on behalf 
of his daughter, — M.P.' 

A. T. P 


March 17th, 1839. 

My Dear Sisters, 

We received your parcel tliis afternoon, and 
were quite surprised witli the heap of things you 
have sent. I fear you are suffering very much 
yourselves by helping us so greatly. I am very 
sorry you had to pay so much for the certificates. 
The sovereign which Clarinda's aunt sent came 
very well-timed, or we should have had to leave 
some of our things in pawn, as I was unable to 
earn much at work last week. Cannot have the 
brace now, but never mind about it. Keep the 
paper, as I shall very likely send for some tools 
when I send to you from Sydney. Am sorry you 
have had so much trouble to no purpose. Am 
extremely thankful to you for everything. T 


could not have gone if it had not been for you. 
Could not even have come from Birmingham if 
it had not been for you, but I trust I shall soon 
be able to repay you. Please to let Thomas put 
the note so directed into the editor's box of the 
Journal office. There are some verses of mine 
in The Charter newspaper of this day (17th), and 
I expect more will be in the next two or three 
numbers ; the price is sixpence. Please to send 
me a Journal of next Saturday by post as soon 
as it is out. 

I like all the things very much. I am very 
anxious now to get off. I think we shall be sure 
to earn a little money on the voyage some way 
or other. If I get a situation I will obtain £10 
and send with my first letter from Sydney. 

Will write a farewell to you last thing, as 
much as a sheet of paper will hold. Have no 

more time now. 

Yours truly, 


Give my love and Clarinda's to my dear father 
and mother. 


Sunday, March 24th. 

My Dear Sister, 

Once more, and for the last time in England, 
I thank you for your unspeakable kindness. I 
go witli a liappy heart, in hope of rendering 
you assistance in future. Tell my dear father I 
"was never more surprised than when we received 
the £1 from him, knowing the sacrifice he must 
have made to send it ; but this only rendered it 
more valuable to us, and us more gr^keful to him. 

Tell my dear mother the "v^ill be kept 

by us as long as we live in remembr .nee of her. 
Thank father for the garden seeMS. I have 
bought half a pint of the best sorts of marrow- 
fat peas, also half a pint of scarlet runners, and 
some fine carrot seed, and tell him I know how 



to plant tliem all. I do hope tliat he will see 
my garden if I have one^ but do not tell him so 
now on account of his and poor mother's feel- 
ings. Would that I could hope to see them and 
all of you again ; but if things should turn out 
well I hope we shall be able to send for you, 
Maria^ and Thomas, and then if my dear father 
is living, and we should find the climate likely 
to agree with him, I hope he will come and end 
his days in peace and happiness with us all. 

Your brother has got quite into favour here. 
He is quite idolized by the old ladies where we 
live, and he is called 'a poet' by The Charter 
of yesterday. He has had no end of presents 
from people whom he has not known many 
months. One old gentleman made him a pre- 
sent of an ivory tablet, a set of reading books, 
and a shoe-lift, and paper knife, worth twelve 
or fourteen shillings. Another made him a 
present of a very handsome rule and several 
other things. You will see what The Charter 
of yesterday says in Answers to Correspon- 
dents relative to his song in the week's before. 
Should we not like to hear his song sung by 
some great man at some public dinner ! but we 
bid ^farewell' to England and he shall write 
songs in his bark hut in Australia. Has not my 


father's wife been kind^ never to send me the 
least thing in the world, and yet she thinks 
she is entitled to the name of 'mother/ but I 
think she does not act 'mother-like! ' 

I have seen the fine park and the Queen's 
palace and the Queen's carriage, but they are 
not, all of them, worth a fig to see. The park, 
crowded with people like a fair, the palace, 
guarded everywhere with soldiers with their 
bayonets fixed ; 1 would rather walk in a rural 
lane than in such places, where you can go so 
far and no farther, without being stopped by a 
soldier with a bayonet in his hand. There are 
fine seats under the trees for people to sit upon ; 
but there are also great cannons stuck all about, 
and policemen here, there, and everywhere. 

I like not the grandeur and misery of this 

great place, and picture to myself more beauty 

and happiness even on the wide, wide ocean, on 

which I shall soon be. The next time I write I 

will tell you all the wonders I see there. Till 

then, a long, long farewell. Give my love to 

mother, father, brothers, sisters and nephew. 



Note. — The relatives mentioned in thia letter by my 
mother are all her husband's relations. 

A. T. P. 


March 25th, 1839. 

My Dear Sister, 

We received your last kind parcel this after- 
noon. We received the other two both together 
last Wednesday, all safe. We are glad that 
you are all still pretty well at Birmingham. I 
am about as I have been for the last month or 
two. Clarinda is very unwell. She went to a 
physician to-day, who prescribed her some 
medicine, which she has got from the druggist's. 
I trust she will soon be better. We are both, 
notwithstanding this, in good spirits, and much 
happier than we have been. The saw, I think, 
is a prime one. My ^Farewell' will appear in 
the Village Magazine for next month (Tyas, 
Cheapside). Hornblower works on it, and has 



struck me off a few copies^ some of which I send 
to you. You will see that the editor of the 
journal has sadly mutilated it, but I do not 
think he has altered it for the 'worser.' 

With respect to my brothers, I hope they 
have no unkind feelings towards me. I know 
no reason why they should, and I trust they 
have not. I love them both and I sincerely 
wish they may possess all the happiness this life 
can afford. And now with respect to the por- 
trait. I had not a shilling left this morning, 
except the 7s. you sent to pay for it, just enough 
to take us to Gravesend, therefore I think you 
will not blame me for not applying the money 
to the purpose you intended, as I had none to 
pay the dock charges on my baggage when I 
got to Grravesend. My boxes were put on board 
in London last Friday. It was a misunderstand- 
ing of mine that I should have to go to Graves- 
end with the baggage. The ship lay in the 
London Dock till within this last day or two. I 
do not think it will be practicable to write again 
before I arrive at the Cape of Good Hope. I 
am not sure of landing at Plymouth, as the ship 
will be out at anchor, so that I should have to 
go on shore by a boat, which, of course, I should 
have to pay for. 


Tuesday morning, six o'cloclc. 
March 26th. 

We shall be on our way down the river to join 
the ship at Gravesend now in an hour or two. 
Clarinda is rather better this morning than 
yesterday. We shall sail to-morrow^ but may 
be six or seven days before we get round the 
coast to Plymouth, if we have unfavourable 
winds, and we may get there in two days. 
You may expect to hear from us in about four 
months, and again in about a year. The name 
of the ship is Strathjieldsaye — a queer name, is 
it not ? We have every prospect of a good 
voyage. I would have had the portrait done 
when I received your parcel yesterday afternoon, 
but there was not time, so I hope you will pardon 
my not doing so. Some of the men at the manu- 
factory have made me little presents, when 
leaving them, altogether to the amount of more 
than one pound — not in money, you know — 
but little articles of their own making, includ- 
ing a very beautiful ivory pocket tablet. 

I hope you will enjoy health and unlocked for 
prosperity till you hear from me again, and till 
I hear from you, I have not much more time 
now. If any of you should ever have to come 


to London jou cannot do better than to get 
lodging, if you can, at our liouse in Kirby-street, 
but I will give you another address, in case 
Irvines should be gone away : Mr. Stentake, 
tailor. Red Lion Court, Charter House Lane. This 
is where Hornblower lodges^ and they seem to be 
very decent people — a sort by no means very 
common in London. Kirby-street, Hatton Gar- 
den, is a very respectable street, but London is 
such that the next street to it is full of thieves, 
Jews, and evil persons. The name of it is Field- 
lane. You will remember this if you should 
ever read ' Oliver Twist.' I must now conclude. 
May God bless you, my dear, dear sister. You 
will look out for the news from sea, to learn 
whether we arrive safe. And should we never 
meet again in this world, may we meet in a 
better, and should you never hear from me 
again, may God reward you for all you have 
done for me. Farewell. 

Yours most affectionately, 




March 26th, 1839. 

My Deae Fathek, 

I thank you for the seeds, and for the sovereign 
you sent me. I am afraid you must have put 
yourself to great inconvenience to send me the 
money. I hope I shall soon be able to return it 

We shall soon be gone now. In two or three 
hours we shall be on the river, and in a few days 
we shall be on the open sea. I shall often read 
your kind letter on the Atlantic and Indian 
Oceans, and think of you and my poor beloved 
mother. I again thank you most sincerely, and 
must now wish you farewell. Farewell, beloved 
parents, farewell. 

Your affectionate son, 


Give my love to my dear, dear mother, and 
Clarinda's love to her and to all. 



On Board the Strathjieldsaye, 
Lying off Plymouth^ 

3Iarch 31st, 1839. 

My Dear Sister, 

We came to anchor here this morning about 
eight o'clock, and I lose no time in writing to 
you. I had not time to take my last (dated 
March 26th, the day we left London) to the 
coach office. Left it with Hornblower. Hope 
you have received it safe. The following is some 
account of our voyage thus far. 

Tuesday, March 26th. — Left London half-past 
ten o'clock. Were but just in time for the 
steamer to Gravesend about one o'clock. Went 
in a small boat to the ship at the distance of about 
one mile. The hole allotted to steerage pas- 
sengers had a most miserable appearance at first. 



Wednesday, March 27th. — ^Lef t Gravesend this 
morning between ten and eleven o'clock. Came 
to anclior for the night in three or four hours, 
about five miles below the Nore. All confusion 
on board these two days, 

Thursday, March 28th. — The anchor heaved 
just before I got up. Went on deck about six 
o'clock. A beautiful clear morning. Went 
along very delightfully, with a good deal of sail 
set. Past Margate just before one o'clock. The 
sky now began to get cloudy. About two o'clock 
a sudden squall of wind with a sharp storm of 
hail caught us, and put us all in confusion and 
fright. We were now opposite Ramsgate. The 
weather continued rainy and bad the remainder 
of the afternoon. Came to anchor in the Downs 
about six o'clock, a little distance from shore, 
opposite Deal. 

Friday, March 29th. — Got the anchor up at 
ten o'clock this morning. Went along merrily 
with a good wind very near shore. The line of 
coast from Deal to the white cliifs of Dover 
presented many pleasant views. In sight of 
Dover Castle about twelve o'clock. A delightful 
view of Dover and Shakespeare's cliff. Saw the 
coast of France on the opposite side of the 
channel for about three hours. Very little sun 


to-day, but a good breeze. Went on deck soon 
after seven o'clock at night. The round yellow 
moon shone out from under a ridge of dark 
clouds upon the wide, foaming waters deliciously. 
Still going along rapidly ; only one other vessel 
in sight. 

Saturday, March 30th. — This morning at day- 
light off the Isle of Wight. In sight of it for 
about two hours. Been dashing along gallantly 
all night. Myself very sick, obliged to lie down. 
As I lay on the bare boards of my berth, with 
my rolled-up bed under my head, in a hole only 
just roomy enough to hold the number of its 
inhabitants touching each other, I sought relief 
from my miserable sensations by thinking of 
those I had left behind, or anything that could 
distract my attention from the scene around me. 
I crept upon deck at 12 o'clock. The scene 
there was truly magnificent. As we rose and 
sank over the tumultuous waves of the Ensrlish 
Channel I could not help repeating the beautiful 
lines of Campbell : 

' Our march is on the mountain wave, 
Our home is on the deep.' 

Sunday, March 31st. — Came to anchor, after 
tacking about all night, at Plymouth. Thei'e is 
a Mr. Walker, from Newbold, Warwickshire, a 


cabin passenger, and some men whom he has 
engaged in the steerage. There is also a Mr. 
Badham, from Birmingham. And there are 
many farm labourers from Sussex in the steer- 
age — a very rude set. There are some Irishmen 
and some Scotchmen. Some of the steerage 
passengers, I believe, are going to leave us at 
Plymouth, among them a young foppish Jew 
from London, heartily tired of the journey 
already. Clarinda is rather better, perhaps, than 
when we left London. Our love to all. Hope 
all are well. If you write, do so immediately. 
Do try to send us two or three little things to 
take with us. I do think I shall die on sea 
biscuit and salt beef before I get to Sydney. 
Your affectionate brother, 



Plymouth Sound, 

April 7th, 1839. 

My Beloved Sister, 

Mr. Marshall's clerk brought your letter on 
board this morning. It rejoices Clarinda and 
myself to learn from it that all of you are still 
pretty well in health. I was very glad of the 
money. Had three half-pence when I received 
it, and no more. Am a great deal better than 
when I wrote my last. Clarinda also is a great 
deal better. 

We fare very well, considering all things, on 
board the Strathjieldsaye, but the steerage of 
an emigrant ship is of necessity a most miser- 
ably uncomfortable place to me. I am more 
solitary and companionless than I ever was in all 
my life in this stagnant crowd of human beings. 
Some of them are of the most indecent and 
brutish description. My hopes of ultimate 
success are as good as ever, and it is worth 

F 83 


somethins: to endure the disao-reeableness of the 
next four months. 

Now for a bit of description of our residence. 
The large hold of the ship, where the goods gene- 
rally are stored, is divided in about the middle 
by a deal partition. The apartment towards 
the forecastle, or front of the ship, is allotted to 
the male steerage passengers; the other, towards 
the cabins in the poop, or the back part of the 
ship, to the females. There are two rows of 
berths, one above the other, round each com- 
partment. The berths are three feet by six feet, 
just affording room for two persons to lie down. 
They are separated from each other by a slight, 
low deal board, about ten inches high, so that 
when we are all in bed, our bodies, rising higher 
than these boards which separate us, it seems as 
if we were ranged side by side in one immense 
bed all round the place. We sleep on straw 
mattresses, with a double blanket and a rug. 
We live at present on nothing but beef and 
soup and biscuit, but there is plenty of that. 
We are divided into messes — eight persons to 
a mess. One of the eight acts as captain for 
the rest for a week, and then another for 
another week. The captain's job is to get the 
provisions for the rest from the ship's steward. 


to see to its being cooked, to wash the dishes, 
&c. I am captain this week. We have a black 
■cook. When we get out to sea where fresh beef 
cannot be obtained, we shall be victualled ac- 
cording to the scheme in Mr. Marshall's paper. 
I think that will suit me a great deal better. 
We have nearly all our passengers on board 
now. A boat load of Irish 'real emeralds/ as 
the surgeon called them, came last night. A 
young* Jew from London forfeited his passage 
money and left the ship the other day, heartily 
tired of it. A man who was going out free also 
ran away last Sunday morning, as soon as we 
got here, and left all his clothes behind him. 
We have a clei'gyman going out with us, who 
came on board to-day. 

They talk of our going direct to Sydney, and 
not touching anywhere. We have live stock on 
board for the use of the ship, A cow and calf, 
24 pigs, 30 sheep, geese, fowls, etc. Not for us, 
though, mind you. Our united love to father, 
mother, and all of you. Give Clarinda's love to 
her father and brother, if you ever see them. 
Your affectionate brother, 


This letter will go to London by Mr. Marshall's 


May Id, 1840. 

My Deaf. Friends, 

This is a duty I ought to have performed 
months ago, and you will think harshly of me 
for this neglect. I have no excuse to plead, save 
that I was unwilling to sadden your hearts with 
a tale of misery. I waited from day to day, and 
from month to month, hoping to be able to give 
a cheering account of this country, but it is a 
sad one I write at last. I have been disappointed 
in all my expectations of Australia, except as to 
its wickedness ; for it is far more wicked than I 
had conceived it possible for any place to be, or 
than it is possible for me to describe to you in 
England. We came to anchor in Sydney harbour 
on the morning of the 25th July, 1839, my dear 



wife having become the mother of a little girl on 
the 23rd, Avhen we were a few hours' sailing 
clear of Bass's Strait. Our little blue-eyed 
ocean child gets on very well, and is now, of 
course, more than nine months old, I thank God 
for this blessing. 

" He moves in a mysterious way 
His wonders to perform," 

or this sweet one of ours could never have out- 
lived the many ills which every day of its short 
life hath brought. I had but two or three 
shillings Avhen we got to Sydney, and the first 
news that came on board was that the 4 lb. loaf 
was selling at half-a-crown ! and everything pro- 
portionately dear. There was no place for the 
emigrants to go to till such time as they could 
engage with masters, or otherwise provide for 
themselves. When they left the ship they had 
to do as best they could. Poor Clarinda in her 
weak state had no one to do the least thing for 
her, not even dress her baby, or make her bed; 
and in a few days she was obliged to go on 
shore, with her new-born infant in her arms, and 
to walk a mile across the town of Sydney to the 
miserable place I had been able to provide for 
her as a home, which was a little low, dirty, 
unfurnished room, without a fire place, at five 


shillings per week rent. When she sat down, 
within these wretched walls, overwhelmed with 
fatigue, on a box which I had brought with us 
from the ship I had but threepence in the 
world, and no employment. For more than two 
weeks I kept beating about Sydney for work, 
durinof which time I sold one thino^ and another 
from our little stock for support. At length, 
being completely starved out, I engaged as a 
common labourer with Sir John Jamison, Kt., 
M.C., to go about thirty-six miles up the country. 
Sir John agreed to give me £25 for the year, 
with a ration and half of food. This amounted 
to weekly : — 

beef — sometimes unfit to eat. 
rice — of the worst imaginable quality, 
flour — half made up of ground rice, 
sugar — good-tasted brown, 
tea — inferior. 

soap — not enough to wash our hands. 
2 figs of tobacco — useless to me. 

This was what we had to live upon, and not a 
leaf of a vegetable or a drop of milk beyond this. 
For the first four months we had no other bed 
than a sheet of bark off a box tree, and an old 
door, laid on two cross pieces of wood, covered 
over with a few articles of clothing. The hut 
appointed for us to live in was a very poor one. 















The Tnorning sunsliine, the noontide sliower, and 
the white moonlight of midnight, gushed in upon 
us alike. You will, perhaps, think had you been 
with us, you would have had a few vegetables at 
any rate, for you would have made a bit of 
garden, and cultivated them for yourselves ; but 
you would have done no such thing ! The slave- 
masters of New South Wales require their ser- 
vants to work for them from sunrise till sunset, 
and will not allow them to have gardens, lest 
they should steal a half-hour's time to work in 
them. I should mention that our boxes, coming 
up from Sydney on Sir John's dray, were broken 
open, and almost everything worth carrying 
away was stolen. I made this at first a very 
grave complaint, but only got laughed at for my 
pains, and told that was nothing. During the 
time I was at Sir John's, I was employed mostly 
in a vineyard consisting of sixteen acres of land. 
I was there during the vintage season, and left 
just as we had done wine-making in the middle 
of last February, having been in his service six 
months. This estate of Sir John's is named 
' Regentville,' and is situated about three miles 
from the small town of Penrith, on the bank of 
the Nepean River, and about the same distance 
from the first rauffe of the Blue Mountains. I 


have been in Sydney now better than two 
months, part of which time I worked in a large 
ironmongery store in George-street, which was 
founded by Macdonald, who now resides, I 
believe, at Birmingham. I am at the present 
time at work for Messrs. Russell Bros., engineers 
and brassfounders, Queen's Place, George-street. 
I get £ve shillings per day, finishing brass work ; 
good brassfounders get 7s. Od. and 8s. a day, I 
think I could get plenty of light turning to do, 
and a good price for it, if I had a lathe, which I 
will try to get before long. I am very unsettled 
at present on account of ill-health. This brass 
business does not suit me at all — have not been 
able to do any work for the last week. I think 
I shall be obliged to go into the country again. 
As soon as I get settled I will write and arrange 
with you how you may forward a few things 
which I should like to get from England as soon 
as I can remit the money. In the meantime, be 
pleased to write immediately, and let us know 
how all our dear friends have fared since we left 
home, I hope well. Address, Mr. Henry Parkes, 
ivory turner, at the General Post Ofiice, Sydney, 
New South Wales. You must pay the land 
postage, or the letters w411 not be sent with the 
mails on board ship. Send me some newspapers. 


and write on the wrappers of them ' newspaper 
only.' Send me all the news you can. I have 
seen but one person since I have been in this 
colony, whom I had any knowledge of in England; 

that was , who was transported about 

two years ago, from Moseley-street. I saw him 
once — met him in Sydney — he was then stay- 
ing in the hands of Government at the new 
prison at Woolloomooloo. For the encourage- 
ment of any at home who think of emigrating, I 
ought to add that I have not seen one single 
individual who came out with me in the 8trath- 
fieldsaye but most heartily wishes himself back 
at home. Mr. Isaac Aaron, who lived in Deritend, 
is practising in this colony as a surgeon, at Ray- 
mond Terrace, on tlie River Hunter. 
With my heart's prayers for you all, 

I remain, 


P.S. — Wages in Sydney at the present time 
are about as follow-^o-ood workmen : — 

per week. 

£ s. 


£ s. 




to 2 10 

Engineers ... 

2 2 

„ 3 

Carpenters ... 


„ 2 10 



„ 2 S 


2 10 

„ :i 


£ s. d. a s. d. 

Turners ... 1 10 to 1 16 per week. 

House painters 1 16 ,, 2 8 ,, 

Other mechanics about the same. 

Labourers ... 1 4 ,, 1 10 „ 

You miglit get as good a house in Birmingliam 
for 2s. 6d. per week when I left as you can get 
in Sydney for 15s. per week. 

Clarinda sends her love and best wishes to 
her dear parents, with which I unite my own. 
Tell my own dear father and mother, if — as I 
trust — they are both alive, that they are seldom 
absent from my thoughts. Give my love to my 
dear nephews Thomas and William. Tell James 
I am not sorry he did not come out here with 
us, though I think he might have done as well 
as most. I will give you some general account 
of this country in my next, which you may 
expect in a month or two after the receipt of 
this, and I hope my next account of my own 
progress will be more satisfactory. Tell John 
Yarney I would advise him by no means to come 
to this colony. Tell him to write. 

Note. — John Varney, my mother's brother, afterwards 
went to Canada. — A. T. P. 


September 22nd, 1840. 

My Dear Sister, — 

My letter of 1st May gave you but a gloomy 
account of Australia. I have some tiling to say 
now a little more cheering, though I could not 
at present muster courage to persuade any of 
my friends in England to think of emigrating. 

I am noAV in a situation which promises not 
only to provide me comfortable bread, but to 
enable me to save a little money. You have 
doubtless heard of such gentlemen as Custom 
House oflficers, whose business it is to catch 
smugglers, seize contraband goods, etc. Your 
humble servant is now one of these. I spend 
most of my time on board ships, where I have 
a good deal of leisure to write poetry — I have 


enough already to fill a book, most of which has 
been published in a Sydney newspaper. But I 
intend to apply some of this waste time to a 
better purpose — that of writing a series of letters 
to you and other dear friends in England, 
descriptive of this country. 

In the meantime, send me word how all is 
going on at home. I hope my dear father is in 
good health, and comfortable. My poor afflicted 
mother, I have a sad presentiment, must be gone 
for ever. If God has spared her, tell her that 
we poor exiles in Australia are comparatively 
happy, though we cling to the hope of returning 
to Old England. Give my dear Avife's love to 
her father, and tell him that she weeps at the 
mention of his name. Tell him that we have 
now another Clarinda, a little friendless, blue- 
eyed infant, that looks up in his daughter's face 
and lisps ' mamma.' She was born amidst the 
rage of the turbulent sea, where no one smiled 
upon her birth ; but He who holds the ocean in 
the hollow of His hand was with us on the 
waters. Kemember us to all, Maria, Eliza, John, 
James, George, and our nephews, Thomas and 

God bless you all. Farewell. Pa}'- the land 
postage in England or the letters, I believe, will 


not be forwarded. Address, Mr. Henry F. Parkes, 
care of H.M. Customs, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Your affectionate brother, 


Note. — I was much surprised to find that this and tlie 
two following letters were signed ' Henry F. Parkes,' as I 
never heard my father say he had another name, nor does 
he appear to have so signed his name before or since. I 
suppose he thought of adopting the name of ' Faulconbridge,' 
his mother's maiden name. — A. T. P. 


May 24th, 1841. 

My Deak Sistee, 

On tlie 16tli of last montli I received your 
letter, dated November 17tli, 1840, and I cannot 
tell you tlie happiness it afforded me to know 
that my mother was still living to hear from her 
undutiful son, for I can scarcely forgive myself 
for not having written sooner, though I then 
had but an ill account to write. I expected to 
hear of misery and affliction from what I am 
able to learn here of the state of things at home, 
and therefore was not surprised at my father 
being so unfortunate, but not less sorry. I have 
not received any newspapers, and I hope you 
will not be at the trouble to send any more 
unless you can send them by some safer means 



than by post, as it appears that some party or 
other in the post office department makes it a 
common practice to detain all the English papers 
he can. It is my pleasing dnty to tell you now 
that I have a much happier prospect before me 
than I had when I wrote to you this time last 
year, or than I ever had in my life. In my letter 
of May, 1840, my conscience constrained me to 
state the truth, however unwillingly. I and my 
dear and virtuous wife were then enduring the 
utmost poverty, and had been in that state ever 
since our arrival in the colony, I had then to 
associate, in my endeavours to obtain a livelihood, 
with the most debased and servile characters to 
be found in society. That confession of my 
misfortunes, I had reason to believe, would be 
highly gratifying to some at home, however they 
might attempt to disguise it ; but there were 
others at home who had a right to know the 
truth, and I told you m}^ misery and disappoint- 
ment, heedless of the sneer of gratified male- 
volence. It would be ungrateful in me to say 
that I have met with no friends in Australia. 
When I had nothing to eat, and no means of 
getting it in the wild bush, a convict, who 
evidently knew the circumstance, brought me a 
share of his rations. On another occasion, when 


I had to travel through the bush in the middle 
of the night, a poor prisoner got up from his 
bed to carry my bagg-age, out of pure respect. 
But think not that I met with respect and kind- 
ness only among this class of my fellow-creatures. 
One of the most influential men in the colony, a 
member of the Legislative Council, and a 
descendant from one of the most illustrious 
families in England, has not thought me 
undeserving his kindness, and I have lately sat 
down to table with some of the most respectable 
merchants in Sydney. I have now a more com- 
fortable home than it was ever my lot to possess 
in England. There is one species of wretched- 
ness which I am now entirely free from — that 
of being in debt with no means of paying. 
Companions I have none beyond my Avife and 
child, but I have plenty of books to amuse my- 
self, and a deal of leisure time in which to I'ead 
them. Upon the whole, I am getting reconciled 
to the country, though my home-sick heart still 
very frequently pines for its native land. Poor 
Clarinda spends a very solitary life, as my 
situation requires me to be absent from her the 
greater part of my time ; still, the thought that 
our native land could not yield us bread recon- 
ciles her to the absence of friends, and our dear 


little girl, who can now just totter about from 
chair to chair, and repeat many little words very 
sweetly — our dear little blue-eyed ocean child is 
ever with her, to soothe her in her lonely hours. 
You ask me for the child's name. It is 
' Clarinda Sarah.' She is now a year and ten 
months old, and, excepting a slight cold, is in a 
happy state of health. If she is at any time 
poorly, she fights most stoutly against taking 
physic, and says to her mother : " Father will 
beat you." In your next letter be pleased to let 
me know how all of you are getting on, par- 
ticularly my father and mother (that I may 
determine in what way I may best assist them). 
It is my intention to remit some money home as 
soon as possible. It is probable that I shall 
return to London in three or four years, but I 
shall be sure not to stay in England, nor do I 
think I shall settle in Sydney. I have promised 
myself a voyage to Java before returning to 
Europe, which I shall probably make in the 
latter part of next year. You will think I am 
speaking extravagantly, but do not be surprised 
to receive a letter from me, dated from Manilla, 
or Sourabaya, or Batavia, or even Calcutta, for 
I am determined upon a trip to the East. Should 
you have any opportunity of sending to me 


otherwise tlian by post, send me all the old 
Birmingham newspapers which you can muster, 
also, if you can get them, the Weekly Dispatch, 
Tail's Magazine, and other publications of a 
late date. The only way in which you can 
send anything with safety is to make it into a small 
parcel, and send it by some particular ship, writing 
me the ship's name by post, but minding that the 
letterdoes not come in the same ship; tliatis, write 
early enough for 3'our letter to come by some 
ship that sails before the one which is to bring 
the parcel. Your living so far from any seaport 
is an obstacle, but you can write to the agent of 
the ship you see advertised in London or Liver- 
pool. The Times newspaper is the best for 
shipping advertisements. I am intimately ac- 
quainted with Mr. Chapman, chief officer of the 
Robert Neivton, to whose care I entrust this 
small parcel. Should he be coming out here 
again, I will get him to write to you before sail- 
ing, so that anything you may wish to send may 
be forwarded to him to bring out to me. The 
Robert Newton will sail from Sydney in about 
three weeks from the date of this. In all pro- 
bability she will arrive in England about Sep- 
tember. I am also well acquainted with Capt. 
Hurry of the barque Beatrice, now loading at 


Sydney for London. By this vessel I will send 
to you. Be sure and write to me frequently. 
Should you see Mr. John Varney^ junior^ ask 
him to write to me. He is a young man whom 
I should much respect, even if he was not my 
wife's only brother. Tell him that I and his 
dear sister were much grieved to hear of the 
loss of his children, and much rejoiced to know 
that he was prospering in business, for he richly 
deserves to prosper. If my father-in-law, Mr. 
R. Varney, has it in his power to do anything 
for his children, I hope he will do all he can for 
John, for Clarinda will never want anything 
from him. In your letter you told me that 
Clarinda' s father had sent a message by Dr. 
Ross. Clarinda accordingly waited on that 
gentleman the following Sunday, at the Inde- 
pendent Chapel in Pitt-street, and he stated 
that he had received no message whatever. Tell 
Mr. Varney from me not to trifle with our feel- 
ings again, through the agency of Dr. Ross or 
Dr. anybody else. If he has anything to say to 
us let him write, if there be pens and ink in 
Birmingham. In your next letter let me know 
if my father has any notion of being a farmer 
again, if he would make up his mind to leave his 
native country for ever, if he would like to end 


his days with us in Australia. He need not fear 
the hardships which we had to endure coming 
here, as we did, entire strangers. 

Give our love to my brothers and sisters, with 
my best wishes for their future happiness. The 
trifles I send with this are hardly worth your 
accepting, ' But yet reject them not as such ! ' 
You wish to have some account of our passage 
out from England, which I will endeavour to 
furnish you in one of my next letters. In the 

I remain. 

Yours affectionatelv; 


Address, Mr. Henry F. Parkes, ofl3.cer of H.M. 
Customs, in care of Mr. W. Magee, bookseller 
and stationer, Pitt-street North, Sydney, N.S.W. 


May 21, 1841. 

My Dear Sister, 

I have just received from the post oiEce your 
letter dated December 6tli, 1840, together with 
the five newspapers (for which I am much ob- 
liged). Yesterday I delivered into the care of 
Mr. Chapman, chief officer of the brig Robert 
Newton, a small package containing Sydney 
newspapers, a few shells, and an unsealed letter 
with a little of ours and baby's hair. The Robert 
Newton will go to sea next week, bound direct 
to London. She will probably arrive about 
October. My friend Mr Chapman will forward 
the parcel to jon as soon as he gets to London. 
He may pass through Birmingliam on his way to 
his home in Yorkshire. If so he will call upon 


you. I wrote a second letter to you last October. 
Received your answer to my first, dated Novem- 
ber 17tli, on the 16tli of last month. I wrote to 
Mr. J. Varney, March 23, 1841. Will write to 
Mr. W. Hornblower in a week or two. In my 
letter by the Robert Newton I tell you not to send 
any more newspapers by post, as I did not receive 
your first. As I have been more fortunate with 
these I would revoke that request. 

The letter I receive to-day gives me much 
happiness. I rejoice to think that things do 
not appear to change for the worse at home, 
though I am afraid they get but little better. 
I scarcely know what feeling in me is strongest 
when I read your kind proposal to send us things 
from England : gratitude for or admiration of 
your affectionate generosity. 

You wish for some account of the passage out 
from England. You shall have it in a few words. 
After gazing on the Land's End of Cornwall as it 
rapidly lessened away from our view on the 8th 
of April, 1839, we never saw land again, with 
the exception of the rugged cliffs of the Island 
of St. Antonia (the most western of the Verde 
Islands, off the cape of that name, on the coast 
of Africa), till we arrived on the opposite side 
of the world. We were sailing with a fair breeze. 


at eiglit or ten knots^ when we passed Antonia ; 
therefore it was not in sight more than three or 
four hours. We saw neither human beings beast, 
bird, nor tree upon it ; nothing but the bare per- 
pendicular rocks. On the first of June we were 
caught in a tremendous gale of wind, which 
increased during the night to a complete hurri- 
cane. For two days and nights we were either 
lying to or drifting before the tempest, with no 
other stitch of canvas than our close-reefed mizzen- 
top-sail ; during which time the winds blew so 
terribly that we expected every minute to see 
the masts torn out of the ship, and heavy seas 
kept continually sweeping the deck. About 
the fourth evening after the storm abated we 
sighted a vessel in a dismasted condition. We 
saw lights of distress during the first part of the 
night, but on the following morning the horizon 
of the waters was without a speck. It would 
seem she went down in the night. We after- 
wards spoke a vessel from Newcastle, bound to 
India, which told us of the Red Rove?' being a 
total wreck on the Island of St. Jago. The Red 
Rover sailed out of Plymouth Sound while we 
were lying there, bound to Sydney. On 
the 20th July we made King's Island, at the 
entrance of Bass's Strait, having had cold 


and rough weather all the way from the 
latitude of the Cape of Good Hope. We 
did not get through Bass's Straits till the 
22nd. On the 23rd we saw the mainland. The 
night of the 22nd was very rough, the ship 
rolling a great deal, and on that night our little 
one was born. The sun rose from the land on 
the 24th to take possession of an almost cloudless 
sky. The line of coast continued to lengthen 
till it stretched either Avay as far as the eye could 
reach in the bland and beautiful sunlight. The 
following night we were tacking about in sight 
of the lighthouse erected on the south head of 
Port Jackson. On the morning of the 25th, 
about 8 o'clock, we entered inside the heads, and 
in two hours afterwards anchored off Dawes' 
Battery, completing the passage in a little more 
than a hundred days. 

When within the tropics we had the most 
delightful weather imaginable. The water was 
so smooth that the ship glided along almost 
without any perceptible motion. We saw whole 
fleets of nautilus floating past us every day, and 
sometimes the expanse of sea would be alive 
with shoals of porpoises, and ever and anon a 
little company of fl^nng fish would spring up 
into the sun and drop again at a short distance 


into the bright and level waters. During a short 
calm on the line we counted one morning seven- 
teen other vessels, none of them near us. From 
about the Cape of Good Hope to our journey's 
end we were surrounded every day by albatross 
and other sea birds. This is all ! A poor account 
truly, but such as it is you must be pleased to be 
satisfied with it, for I can remember nothing to 
make me wish to think of the subject again. I 
will send you all the information concerning 
Australia which I think worth your attention in 
future letters, and I will write much more fre- 
quently. I will also often send some news- 
papers. I send about fifty by the Robert Newton. 
I see many London papers, but very seldom 
country papers. I have dined several times 
latety on board ship with a young gentleman 
from Birmingham, a son of Mr. Price, silver- 
smith, at the bottom of Bull-street. It is not 
often I meet with anyone from that part of the 

When you write after receiving this be pleased 
to let us know how Thomas is getting on in his 
education. I hope you will be sure to let him 
obtain a competent knowledge of arithmetic and 
the substantial branches of learning, to enable 
him to fill a respectable mercantile situation, in 


case it sliould be convenient foi- him to seek such 
employment. I hope he is a good boy and kind 
and aifectionate to you all. And may He who 
is the Father of the Fatherless bless and prosper 
him in all things. I hope my brothers are 
comfortable and happy. Give my love to both 
of them. Tell my dear father and mother that 
the world's extension intervening shall not keep 
me from seeing them again if G-od spares us but 
two or three years longer. I often wish my 
father was here with me now, that I could 
provide for him in comfort, for I feel so lonely 
in this land of strangers. Yet there is some- 
thing so heart-sickening in one's being an exile, 
that I am afraid to hold out encouragement to 
anyone to leave their native land. In case any 
of you should feel inclined to come out here, 
write me word to that effect as early as possible. 
I will give you a particular account of what 
could be done here in a future letter, and that 
of an early date. 

I hope you will not be at the expense of 
sending anything for me as intimated in your 
kind letter, as neither of us now is in need of 
such in the shape of clothing. With respect to 
a lathe, I shall buy one in the colony. Any 
little thing you may wish to send for little 


Clarinda Sarah, I need not tell you, will be 
prized as coming from her aunts in Old England. 
When Mr. Chapman is in London you can 
entrust any parcel to him, and he will either get 
some seafaring gentleman who may be coming 
out here to bring it to me, or ship it in a regular 
manner, paying the freight in London, and 
getting a bill of lading signed for it. There are 
several little things which I want to get from 
home. I will enumerate them when I send the 
money to procure them. I should like very well 
to have the dog, but do not send him till you see 
whether I am likely soon to return. I am 
extremely glad to hear that Mr. J. Varney is 
getting on well in business. Send me word 
what John Hornblower is doing, if you can learn 
without giving yourself much trouble. Write 
to me as frequently as you can. Clarinda sends 
her love to all her friends, to which I add my 
own, sincerely wishing them every earthly 
happiness and prosperity; but ask Mr. Varney 
not to send any more messages, as he is likely to 
be understood by writing much better. In an 
early letter I will let you know my views as to 
the future. I am now very anxious about getting 
money, not being at all content to come here for 
no purpose. I must now bid you ' farewell ' 


for the present. With my dear wife's love to 
my father and mother, and to you all, in which I 
most heartily unite. 

Your affectionate brother, 


Note. — The ' Thomas ' so often mentioned in these letters 
was the son of my father's eldest brother, left fatherless 
and'motherless at an early age, and reared by my aunts. 

A. T. P. 


August 8th, 1841. 

My Dear Sister, — 

I received yesterday your letter dated 
February 22nd, together Avitk one from Mr. 
R. Varney, making the third and fourth since I 
left England. This will make the sixth letter I 
have written to you. I wrote Mr. J. Varney last 
March, and to Mr. W. Hornblower June 3rd. A 
letter to my father I shall post with this. I have 
received nine newspapers in all. The papers 
you sent with this last letter were not likely to 
reach me, as it appears they came by a ship 
bound to Port Phillip, the overland mail bringing 
the letters on to Sydney, a distance of six 
hundred miles. Our dear little girl has been at 
death's door since my last, at which time she 


was not well, though I did not write to that 
effect, thinking she would soon get better. I am 
happy to inform you now that she is regaining 
her health very fast, so fast that I have included 
her in ' all very well ' to my father, but she is 
not able to walk at present. We have been able 
to obtain medical aid, with which Clarinda was 
quite satisfied, and the dear little sufferer has 
wanted no comfort. I was sorry to hear of the 
death of my brother's wife, but hope he will be 
comforted. Was much rejoiced to hear that my 
mother's health was continuing so good. I hope 
you will not apprentice our nephew for some 
twelve months to come, by which time I should 
be able to advise what best to do with him (if 
you think my advice worth having). In the 
meantime I think he should be employed. 
Suppose you got him into a printing office for a 
short time. He would be attaining a knowledge 
of printing as a business and of book-making 
altogether, which would foster his taste for 
reading at the same time, as he would be get- 
ting a little money. (Nothing like getting money ; 
nothing can be done Avithout it. I know the 
value of money now ! Money ! money ! money ! 
is my watchword in future !) But do not neglect 
his education. Attend especially to that branch 


whicH may fit liim for business. On no account 
suffer him to neglect arithmetic. Drawing is 
very well in its place — a very beautiful acquisition, 
but it must not become a mere childish passion, 
to the subversion of that which may make him a 
gentleman, an intelligent and useful member of 
society. Drawing will be of no use to him in 
the merchant's counting house, and I do not 
think Birmingham the place for his future 
existence. What is his age ? Does he read 
much, and what kind of books ? Give my love 
to him, and tell him to be a good fellow — to 
begin to be a man ! 

I have little more to say at present, and as 
little time. I am quite happy now in Australia, 
and I am sure this will add to your happiness. 
I have got together a good many books, with 
other comforts, since I have been here, among 
which are the following : ' Plutarch's Lives,' 
complete ; Smith's ' Wealth of Nations,' com- 
plete ; Dr. Lang's 'History of Australia;' 
' Sturt's Expeditions into Australia ; ' ' Blair's 
Lectures ; ' ' Poetical Works of James Mont- 
gomery,' complete in three vols. ; ' Goldsmith's 
Works,' complete in four vols. ; * The Works 
of Shakespeare,' complete ; ' The Spectator,' 
complete ; ' Sir William Jones' Letters ; ' and 


many more. You will see I have some reading 
now under my own roof, though I was obliged to 
sell every book I had when I first arrived to buy 
bread. There is a great fall in the price of this 
article lately. The 4 lbs. loaf is now only eight- 
pence. There is some difference between this 
and 2s. 6d., and almost everything in Sydney 
except rent is very reasonable. I bought a 
carpenter's hand-saw from a broker's shop, quite 
new, and as good as the one you sent me in 
London, for 4s. What do you think of this ? 
Yours affectionately, 



September 15th, 1841. 

My Dear Sister, 

You will perceive by a newspaper of to-day's 
date, which I shall post with this, that hundreds 
of emigrants are at the present time starving 
in the streets of Sydney, so great has been the 
over-supply of labour here since my last. Of 
this deplorable fact I could send you other and 
stronger proof had I leisure to do so, but I write 
this away from home, not deeming it right to 
delay a moment in letting you know. A week 
ago there were eight vessels riding at anchor in 
the harbour, all crowded with emigrants ! And 
though many of them have now been engaged to 
go into the interior, I am afraid great numbers 
will not be able to obtain employment. By the 


emigration regulations they are only allowed to 
remain on board their respective vessels ten days 
after their arrival in Port Jackson, and at the 
expiration of that time they are invariably turned 
adrift to provide for themselves in the way they 
best can. If they cannot get employment, and 
have no money, of course they must starve ! I 
saw a case in the newspapers last week of a 
young woman who was turned out of one of these 
emigrant ships when the ten days were up, and 
was found by a policeman sitting on the Queen's 
Wharf, and taken to the watchhouse. The next 
morning she was brought before the magistrate, 
charged with being drunk ; and though she stated 
that it was f aintness, and that she was meditating 
suicide when the policeman came to her, yet she 
was sentenced, on the oath of the policeman, to 
sit one hour in the stocks ! What encourage- 
ment for persons to come to Australia ! 

I must now conclude, hoping that you are all 
in the enjoyment of health. Our little Clara is 
getting quite well again. Clarinda and myself 
are quite well. The merchants of Sydney are all 
in a state of bankruptcy. 

Yours affectionately, 



23rd January, 1842. 

My Dear Sister, 

Your letter dated Gtli June, 1841, came to 
hand this day, making the fourth I have received 
from you, with one from Mr. R. Varney. 
I must also have received the greater part of 
the newspapers, though I cannot state how many. 
This will make the tenth or eleventh letter to 
you, with one each to Mr. J. Varney and Mr. W. 
Hornblower, and the best part of a hundred 
newspapers. I write this on ship-board, or I 
would state the exact number, having an account 
at home. I need not tell you how I am dis- 
tressed to hear of dear father suffering so much 
from bad health, and of all of you being still 
unfortunate in that way. I hope, however, that 



all are now safely restored to that greatest of 
earthly blessings, and my sorrow is somewhat 
decreased by learning our beloved mother is so 
much better than I dared to allow myself to 
hope. I am happy to inform you that I and my 
Clarinda and our Clarinda Sally are all in the 
enjoyment of excellent health. Our little light- 
hearted ' Ninna/ as we call her, runs about and 
chatters at a fine rate. xVnd what do you think 
her home-sick mother has taught her ? Some- 
times when I go home, she runs to me with : 
"Father, take us in a big ship to see grand- 
fathers and aunties in England, do, father ! " In 
a parcel which I sent home last June I enclosed 
a small lock of her hair. I will, perhaps, send 
you her portrait in a future one. You tell me 
Tom is reading Cunningham's ' New South 
Wales;' I am glad to hear it. Cunningham, I 
believe, gives an excellent account of the colony, 
but I never read him myself. I hope Tom is 
getting on in his education, ■particularly in 
arithmetic, which will be the chief thing he will 
have to depend upon in his future life — for a 
respectable position in society. I am heartily 
glad to hear that Mr. J. Varney is getting on so 
well in business. My prayers will be for his 
prosperity, for I believe him an excellent man. 


and must continue in this belief wliicli makes me 
happy, though he may deem me worthless. Give 
my love to him — should you see him — also to his 
father. Tell Mr. R. Varney that his daughter is 
comfortable, and as happy as a virtuous woman 
in her situation can be. Tell him it is time any 
enmity he may feel towards me should cease, 
though in some measure he may have had cause 
for it. The fact of our being separated to the 
opposite extreme of the earth should, I think, 
help to make us friends. I do not believe my 
follies in earlier life were so great as my mis- 
fortunes. I entered the world with as little 
experience and as many difficulties as ever 
young man had for his portion. I did not 
succeed; what wonder! My native land seemed 
too unfriendly for me to live in — I loved it — you 
know how well I loved my country ; yet I tore 
myself away to seek for ' leave to toil' in a foreign 
land. I had to encounter a new kind of suffer- 
ing, but not a Avorse, though sufficiently ample 
to punish me for my former errors. 

I am now more happily situated, but there is 
much bitterness at best in the lot of an exile. 
And Clarinda and I have little to ameliorate the 
exile's lot j we have neither wealth nor friends, 
and the very means of comfort afforded us is in 


itself a source of discomfort, for it separates us, 
who have none other for the weary heart to lean 
upon. Still we have much to be thankful for, 
and I trust we are truly thankful. And, God 
willing, the time shall come when all who know 
us at Birmingham shall acknowledge that we are 
honourable. In the meantime let us be content. 
Accept for yourself, my dearest sister, my grate- 
ful acknowledgments for all your past kindness. 
You have been to me a sister, affectionate with 
the watchful affection of a mother. I cannot 
remember a moment of life when you did not 
smile upon me with gentleness and love. It was 
you who did nurse me in my earliest sickness, 
and you whose voice of comfort came last to me 
in my native land. When affliction smote my 
mother in earlier years you caught the maternal 
glow of her love, and supplied her place. You 
taught me first to pray, and my best prayers 
shall be offered up for you. And I have other 
sisters ; may God be most kind to them ! Give 
my love to my brothers. If we never meet again 
may their years be many and their share of 
happiness large. That they may go down to the 
grave in honour and peace will ever be his prayer 
who is far away. 

I thank you sincerely for the sweet words of 


consolation and advice wliicli you send me over 
the wide, wide sea. You also have my thanks 
for the news you send me about old Brummagen. 
You have a poet and a poetess, have you ? 
You do not seem to be aware that the greatest 
poetical personage of Birmingham is now living 
with us at the Antipodes. The late Miss 
Twamley, now Mrs. Meredith, is a resident in 
Australia. And what do you think of my setting 
up poet? I am positively preparing for the 
press a volume of verses ; have already sub- 
scribers for 100 copies, including some of the 
greatest names in New South Wales, as by-and- 
by you will see. Among your news you tell 
me that you have a nunnery in Birmingham. 
Why, I declare the old place is getting quite 
romantic ! You must take care of Maria and 
Eliza, lest they take the veil. I should 
not like to see them nuns. But, joking apart, 
do not be alarmed at a convent of sisters of 
mercy. They will not (think as you please) 
hurt Protestantism. You must let me know how 
the Chartists are getting on, and if you should 
see anything in the papers respecting William 
Lovett, who was imprisoned with John Collins in 
Warwick gaol, be pleased to send me the paper 
containing it. I am very desirous to know as 


rauch as I can about him. He appears to me to 
be one of the best men in England. I must now 
endeavour to collect you a little news — colonial 

The commercial state of Sydney is at the 
present time^ and has been for the last twelve 
months, as gloomy as can well be conceived. 
The market is overstocked with almost every 
commodity. Most kinds of British goods may 
be purchased here as cheap as, or cheaper than, 
in England. Failures to enormous amounts 
occur continually. There is scarcely a mercan- 
tile house in Sydney which a man could say 
with safety was solvent a year ago, which is not 
now undermined by these repeated crashes of 
bankruptcy. At present we have also too 
much labour in Sydney, gi'eat numbers of work- 
men, mechanics, and labourers, ' old hands in 
the colony ' — unemployed. The ncAV-comers fare 
worse, of course — that is, those who stay in the 
town. In the interior there is still employment. 
Wages are much lower than they were a few 
months ago. You will feel surprised that in 
this state of things there should be such a cry 
raised in the colony for increased immigration, 
not only from Great Britain and the continent 
of Europe, but from India and China. The fact 


iSj the parties who are foremost in the endeavour 
to inundate us Avith Avorkers look only to the 
depreciation of labour as the sure result. They 
have been accustomed to having the convict's 
toil for nothing, and they cannot bring their 
minds to paying for that of the free man. Hence 
they would fain have the poor coolie from India, 
bound to them for a number of years — a slave 
in everything but in name. You will be kind 
enough to excuse my rambling and blundering 
manner of writing. I have much to say but have 
not time to think about it just now. I propose 
writing you descriptions of my Avalks about the 
town, and of different characters I meet with 
here, as I think this kind of minute description 
of what comes under my own observation will 
interest you more than any general account of 
the country which I am able to give you. There 
is a man now passing before my eyes well worth 

Imagine yourself standing by me on the deck 
of a small schooner lying in Sydney harbour. 
There is a miserable-looking old man paddling 
an old canoe from the Sydney side to the 
opposite shore. The face is unshorn, and his 
beard and hair are as white as snow. As his 
vessel glides over the sunny waters he casts his 


haggard countenance towards tlie bright blue 
sky above, and you hear him speaking vehem- 
ently in a jargon between French and English. 
Listen ! You now hear him fiercely cursing God 
Almighty, and calling upon the devil. For 
twenty years past that white-headed and impious 
maniac has led the same life, cursing Grod every 
day as you hear him now. He is well-known to 
sailors frequenting Port Jackson by the name of 
' French Peter.' In early life he was an ofiicer 
of the French army, but having committed 
a murder at home he fled and sought refuge in 
Australia. Many ^^ears ago, when he first arrived, 
he became possessed of some propert}^ That 
patch of land by the water-side, which you now 
see occupied by Mr. West, was then his. That 
land, at the present time, is worth c€10,000. He, 
growing a reckless drunkard, sold it for 16s. and 
a bottle of rum ! For the last twenty years he 
has had no home, living in a hole in a rock on 
the north shore. Some days he brings over to 
Sydney a few oysters, and selling them buys 
bread. The iguanas have been known to steal 
his bread in the night, when in the morning he 
would come back to Sydney for more, declaring 
that the devil came when it was dark, and took 
away his bread. Whenever you see ' French 


Peter' lie is cursing God^ and raving about tlie 

I will write to yon again at no distant period. 
By this time you must have received three or 
four other letters from me, to which I shall soon 
begin to expect answers. It is now the fruit 
season in Sydney. The market is well supplied. 
Peaches from one penny to sixpence per dozen, 
which are the commonest kind of fruit here. 

Clarinda send her love to you all, to which is 
added that of 

Your affectionate brother, 


P.S. — I saw Mr. Badliam, of Birmingham, about 
three weeks ago, when he informed me that he 
had purchased the ship Renown, and intended to 
go home in her as soon as he could procure a 
cargo, his business in Sydney being nearly all 

Note. — My father never appears to have carried out his 
intention of sending home ' descriptions of my walks about 
the town, and of different characters I meet here,' which 
is a great pity. How interesting those descriptions would 
be now ! It must be clearly understood that I have altered 
nothing in these letters, and I have omitted very little — 
good or bad, still they show what Henry Parkes was at 
twenty-seven. —A. T. P. 


27th March, 1842. 

My Dear Sister, 

We are quite unhappy iu not hearing from 
you more frequently. It is now more than nine 
months since the date of your last letter (June 
6th, 1841). Intelligence has reached the colony 
of the safe arrival of four vessels, by which I 
sent home letters, subsequent to those you name 
as having received; and yet I get no answers. I 
hope, however, the cause of my anxiety is nothing 
worse than the tardiness of the conveyance by 
which we are doomed to receive your favours. 
In your last you stated that father and other 
members of the family had been suffering from 
illness. I trust all are now perfectly restored to 
health. We in Sydney are quite well, except 


little Clarinda, who has a slight cold. I have 
nothing of particular interest to communicate. 
Sydney is still in a bad state. In the papers I 
send you with this you will see some particulars 
of an action in the Supreme Court for libel, in 
which Aaron, surgeon, late of Deritend, was 
plaintiff. In the Australasian Chronicle for 
March 1 7th there is an article headed ' Obscure 
Poets ' and signed ' Faulconbridge,' which is 
from the pen of your humble servant. Mr. J. 
D. Badham, who, you will recollect, was a 
passenger to Sydney in the Strathfieldsaye, will 
be the bearer of this. He sails in a few days for 
Liverpool in the ship Renoivn, part of which 
vessel he himself owns. Give our love to father 
and mother and all our friends, and for the 
present farewell. 

Yours affectionately, 



3rd September, 1842. 

My Dear Sistbe, 

Your letter dated March 28t]i, 1842, was re- 
ceived, with four newspapers, about a month 
ago, at which time (as you will have learned by 
Clarinda's answer) your former letter of the date 
November 22nd, 1841, had not come to hand. 
It has, however, now reached us by the emigrant 
ship TJieresa, which arrived a few days ago, after 
a passage of eight months from Plymouth. These 
two letters lay before us a frightful picture of 
affliction which you must have suffered during 
the last severe winter, and our grief receives 
additional bitterness from the reflection that 
we were at the same time having comparative 
ease and happiness, surrounded by all the 



luxuriant beauty of an Australian summer. But 
I feel it will be some comfort to you to know 
we have been exempted by a kind Providence 
from sufferings wkicli we would gladly have 
shared to alleviate. For the last two years we 
have enjoyed a state of almost uninterrupted 
health, while the emoluments of "my situation 
have procured us many comforts, though we 
have hardly yet recovered from the difficulties 
of our first year in the colony. At the present 
time my income (which is always fluctuating) is 
not sufficient for our support, in consequence of 
the stagnation of the shipping interests at Sydney, 
which, together with all other mercantile trans- 
actions, wear a deplorable aspect. Insolvency, 
like some fearful epidemic, is daily discovering 
itself in some new place, and all kinds of goods 
(British goods in particular) are being sacrificed 
every day, at considerably less than their invoice 
value in England. There are no paAvnbrokers 
in Sydne}^, but there are auctioneers who serve 
the necessitous in a similar manner, with this 
difference, that the man who sends his goods to 
the pawnbrokers has a hope (which too fre- 
quently is never realised) of redeeming them, 
while he whose goods go to the auction mart 
knows at once that they are gone from him for 


ever. I saw carpenters' hand-saws sold at one 
of these sales not long since at Is. 6d. each. 
Mechanics and labourers in Sydney are glad to 
obtain employment now at wages 40 or 50 per 
cent, lower than they were receiving a year or 
eighteen months back, and their money at the 
week's end is in many instances uncertain. 

Nearly all provisions are, however, now at 
very moderate prices; bread is fourpence the 
2 lb. loaf, and beef and mutton fourpence per 
pound, but house rent is excessively high. 

You must not infer from what I have said that 
we are here in any danger of starving, for bad 
as things are at present I believe they are so 
much worse in England that I wish you were all 
in safety here. I ought to state that the great 
cause of an overabundance of labour now in 
Sydney is the objection which men feel to going 
into the interior, for, seeing that ' life has ample 
room ' in the country, there can be no fear of a 
general dearth of employment for a hundred 
years to come, provided the amount of capital be 
proportionate to that of labour. 

As yet I am quite unsettled in my purpose for 
the future, or whether or not I shall remain in 
the colony, but I hope I shall be more decided 
in the course of a year or two. I am beginning- 


to sigh for a permanent home. It may be fixed 
in the immense wilds of this wonderful country, 
or amidst the native haunts of the New Zealand 
savage ; or it may be in the beautiful and fertile 
island of Otaheite, or in Chili, or Peru, or it may 
be among the settlements of Malacca, or in South 
Africa, or the United States of America; but I 
am Bad to think it is not likely to be in my 
native land, though I still must hope to lay my 
bones in old England. As soon as I am able to 
write you more explicitly of my views for the 
future I will be sure to do so. And I trust I 
shall have it in my power before long to repay 
your love and kindness to me in past years. Tell 
our beloved mother, should this reach you while 
she is allowed to remain with you, that the 
prospect before her children in this strange 
country is fair for the cloudy times we live in, 
and assure her of our unabated affection. Tell 
her and my dear father and my sisters and 
brothers, and my beloved wife's friends also, 
that, though every other feeling may be blunted 
by continual contact with the world, our love for 
them will receive new vigour from trouble and 
privation, from strife and sorrow. Long before 
you can read this I trust we shall receive a 
happier account from you — of health banishing 


all traces of sickness, and of suffering and anxiety 
giving place to domestic comfort and peace. And 
now, my dear sister, for tlie present ' farewell/ 



26th January, 1843. 

My Dear Sister, 

I received in November last your letter of the 
date June, 1842, conveying to me the particulars 
of my mother's death. I was in some degree 
prepared for this sad intelligence, but when I 
knew for a certainty that I should see that 
dearest face no more, — that she, whose love for us 
gathered strength from aJSliction and misfortune, 
was now resting in the grave and could no longer 
participate in her children's happiness or sorrow, 
when I knew that my mother indeed was dead, 
I felt as if a portion of this world's beauty was 
lost to me for ever. But it is a blessed thing to 
know there is another and a better world where 
sorrow never troubleth and the weary are at rest. 



Could we have been allowed to meet again, for 
me to have heard her bless my dear little child 
and listen to her mother's story of her birth, it 
would have been to me a happiness greater than 
I can ever more expect. This, however, could 
not be, and there is One above, who, in His wis- 
dom, ordered it should not be so, against whose 
decrees we must not rebel. May the almighty 
and all-merciful Being comfort and support 
those she has left behind in my native country. 
Perhaps I am never to see any of you again, but 
while I live I shall cling to the hope of returning 
to dear England. In my last letter I believe I 
mentioned that I had not been very fortunate 
lately, and I have delayed writing since with the 
hope of being enabled to tell you things with me 
were better, Avhich I can assure you is now the 

The circumstances of the colony are still very 
bad. A large mercantile house failed yesterday 
to the amount of £130,000. Declaration of in- 
solvency is a matter of almost every day occurr- 
ence among the tradespeople of Sydney. Wages 
are very low, and employment not very plentiful 
in Sydney. In the country the only demand for 
labour is as shepherds, and for this purpose the 
flock-masters are striving their utmost to obtain 


hill coolies from India on the ground, they state, 
of not being able to give the price of European 
labour, which is at present from £15 to £20 per 
annum and rations. But I think things will 
shortly improve. 

In your last letter you remind me of my duty 
to assist my father, and I am sorry and ashamed 
to tell you it is not in my power at present to 
remit anything home. At the earliest possible 
period I will do so. I think I may say for 
certain in the course of this year. I often wish 
he was here with me, as I am sure I could make 
him comfortable. I could take a farm of thirty 
acres within a few miles of Sydney at as low a 
rent as I pay for our house in the town, or I 
could purchase an allotment of land and build 
ourselves a cottage outside the town, but to all 
these things at present the objection is Clarinda's 
being left alone at those times when my situa- 
tion requires my absence for weeks together. I 
have not time to say more, as a ship sails this 
afternoon. Give the united love of myself, wife, 
and child to all. Clariuda and Clarinda Sarah 
are both well. 

I am, my dear sister. 

Yours most affectionately, 



[Note by A.T. P. — The first portion of this letter is missing.] 

. . I think of them as the rural beauties 
of a country which my children will call foreign. 
Yes! henceforth the country of my children' 
shall be mine. Australia has afforded me a 
better home than my motherland, and I will 
love her with a patriot's love. With regard to 
my own individual prospects I am full of hope. 
I have had my troubles, as the old ladies say. 
When you think of my landing on the soil of 
this country with a wife and child, the one only 
three days old and the other in the delicate state 
of health of a mother at that time, and with only 
a few pence and without a home, you will think 
I must have had some difficulties to contend with 
since my arrival in Australia. And I have had 
my share of them in good earnest, and not the 
least of them I am grappling with at this 



moment. But still I am full of liope. I believe 
my circumstances will improve^ and that speedily. 
I see my way now quite clearly whicli sliall lead 
me to respectability if not competence. I will 
write again in about three months, and, though 
it is useless for me to write to you oftener, I 
should like to hear from you more frequently. 
Our little girl, who is now four years old, has 
enjoyed the best of health for this last tAvo years 
and a half. She is now playing with the cat on 
the floor of a little sitting room, the door of which 
opens a few yards from the sea. Her dear 
mother is lying down — it is Sunday afternoon. 
In general Clarinda's health has been pretty 
good, and mine, since my arrival in this country, 
has been only interrupted by a short sickness 
about the date of my first letter to you in 1840. 
I have made inquiries after the son of Mrs. 
Weston. The ofiicer of Customs who was 
boarded on the Joseph Cunard tells me that 
he saw him last June. He then looked well and 
was respectably dressed. He thinks he was in 
some draper's shop, but I have not been able to 
ascertain where he is at the present time. If 
his friends think proper to address a letter to 
him in care of me, it is more than probable that 
in the meantime I shall be enabled to find out 


where lie is. I must now bid you farewell. 
This letter will be enclosed in a small parcel — 
the same old box again — and sent in the care of 
Henry Smith, an apprentice on the barque 
Standering. The trifles inside, with the ex- 
ception of five copies of ' Stolen Moments/ are 
for yourself. Clarinda will send a few similar 
presents by the first opportunity to her father. 
Give our united love to all the Varneys whenever 
you see them, and let them know the contents of 
this letter as far as it relates to my prospects. 
I remain, my very dear sister, 

Yours most affectionately, 




I cannot better bring this little book to a 
close than with the following beautiful letter, 
addressed to my mother, his devoted wife for 
fifty-two years, of whom he said, on the morning 
she lay dead : ' She was a good woman, a good 
wife, and a good mother/ She would have 
asked for no higher tribute from him. Earthly 
titles were nothing to her in comparison. To be 
a ' good woman,' a ' good wife,' a ' good mother ' 
was her highest aim to the last day of her long 
and eventful life. There is a bitter-sweet con- 
solation to me in the thought that they who trod 
life's thorny path together for fifty-two years 
now lie side by side at rest for evermore. None 
can divide them now. May their good deeds 

only be remembered ! 

A, T. P. 


October 6th, 1844. 

My Deae Wife, 

Being hard tasked on board the Harlequin 
to get my time off my hands (for day and night 
I am utterly alone here) I have resolved to write 
you a love letter. It is many days, some of 
them, I hope, happy ones, since my last love 
letter, and in their wintry sweep over my head 
they have let fall some flakes of snow, and then 
they have somewhat withered, and in their 
course they have hurried us over a dreary wide 
distance of billowy sea, severing us, perhaps for 
ever, from our native home. But many, many 
darker days than the darkest we have known 
could not blight or chill that life of love in my 
heart which dictated that last letter and which 
dictates this. Yes, Clarinda, my own first (for 
I have a second now) dear Clarinda, if ever a 
heart was constant in its love, that heart is yours 



in mine. I have questioned myself on this mat- 
ter often and deeply, and my soul has returned 
one only answer — ' I love her truly, passionately 
love her !' My imagination has often of late 
conjured up before me my beloved as I first 
knew her in the spring of womanhood, and I 
have listened again to her first fond words to 
me — me, a poor and friendless boy, to whom 
then none other had ever spoken fondly; and all 
her faults (for faults I tell her most lovingly she 
has) were lost in the beauty of her pure and 
deep affection. And, oh ! I feel that, though I 
was greatly rich and loaded with honour and 
courted and flattered by the world (which, 
happily, I never shall be), still there would be 
one whose smile to me was like the common sun- 
shine, without which I could not live to enjoy- 

And this is my love letter to my dear wife and 
companion, to whom I am now, for ever and 
ever, with a heart full of love, 



Note. — The following letter was sent in answer to my 
repeated request to Mr. J. G. Hornblower to give me some 
account of my father's youthful years, Mr. Hornblower and 
his brother being his only friends and companions at that 
time. With regard to the poems, ' The Emigrant's Farewell 
to his Country' was written just before my father left 
England in 1839. I do not know the'date of the poem ' My 
Native Land,' but it was written soon after his arrival in the 
colony. — A. T. P. 



Punt Eoad, South Yarba, 
6th May, 1890. 

My Dear Miss Parkes, 

You asked me to send you some reminiscences 
of your father's youth. I am afraid you will be 
disappointed, as the incidents occurring in what 
may be called the ' seed-time ' of his life, which 
had any relevancy to the prominent characteristics 
of his manhood, were but few and uninteresting. 

Doubtless your father has told you that he 
was apprenticed to a Mr. John Holding, who is 
described in the Birmingham Directory of 1830 
as a bone and ivory turner of Moseley-street. I 
may say that your father had great aptitude for 
his business, and gave much satisfaction to his 
employer. During his apprenticeship your father 
was somewhat reserved in his demeanour, had 



but few companions, and occupied his leisure 
hours in mental improvement. The cheap pocket 
editions of tlie "^ British Poets ' had more attrac- 
tion for him than the out-door sports and pas- 
times common to youth, and versification became 
a habit before he had acquired sufficient mastery 
of language to efficiently clothe ' The thoughts 
that burst their channel into song.' I was his 
printer, and, unknown to my employer, worked 
many an hour overtime to put his evanescent 
thoughts into print. One of his early poetical 
effusions deserved to be placed among the 
' Fragmentary Thoughts ' of later days. The 
opening lines were ; — 

' What of earth that had wings would not wander ou high 
' Now the stars in their stillness have peopled the sky, 
' And the ocean is fondly embracing with smiles 
' Of deep fervour and gladness her favourite isles.' 

Another poem of some worth was an expression 
of sympathy with the Poles in their final struggle 
for national liberty. I mention these as showing 
the bias of his mind. He was a most ardent and 
enthusiastic reformer, a member of that great 
and powerful association the Birmingham Pol- 
itical Union, which carried the Reform Bill of 
1832. While that important measure was in 
jeopardy by the opposition of the House of 


Lords; the Council of the Uniou issued an edict 
that every member and every man who wished 
it passed should wear upon his heart the Union 
Jack of Old England ! Jewellers, silversmiths, 
steel and gilt toy makers vied with each other in 
making these insignia of the people's will as 
pretty and attractive as possible, and I well 
recollect the one worn by your father was of 
ivory, the carving and painting being his own 
work. He was one of the multitude Avho 
assembled at New Hall Hill, and the impassioned 
eloquence of Thomas Attwood, Joshua Scholefield, 
Geo. Edmunds and others must have had great 
influence in the formation and growth of those 
political convictions which he brought with him 
to Australia. From 1832 to 1838 your father 
was in the turmoil of political excitement; the 
Reform Bill was a failure, and the excitement of 
the disappointed culminated in the adoption of 
the ' national petition,' which demanded all those 
political privileges Avliich are now enjoyed by the 
people of England and Australia. I forward by 
the same post a very scarce copy of the printed 
report of the Grand Midland Demonstration at 
Hollowa}'^ Head, in 1838, at which your father 
was present. It will recall to his mind names as 
familiar as household words. 


It may interest you to know that your mother's 
influence and example had no inconsiderable 
share in the formation and development of your 
father's religious convnctious. For some years 
they Avere both regular attendants at Carr's Lane 
Independent Chapel, under the pastorate of tlie 
Rev. John Angell James, one of the most learned 
and eloquent preachers of his day. At that time 
it was your father's custom (and probably your 
mother's also) every Sunday afternoon to walk 
to Yardley, a village distant some four miles, 
teach the children, and exchange tracts with the 
parents on his way home. The years 1837 and 
1838 were perhaps the most trying of your 
father's life. With too much self-respect to join 
the ranks of the journeymen of his trade, he rented 
premises in Bradford-street, and commenced 
business on his own account ; but although his 
samples of turner}' would bear favourable com- 
parivson with the best, yet lack of capital and the 
pressure of competition forced him to retire and 
look to other lands in the hope of finding fuller 
scope for the exercise of his talents, far away 
from the depressing sun'oundings of his ever}'- 
day life. 

In remembrance of many pleasant hours, and 
in appreciation of your father's early friendship. 


I shall always feel a pi-ido in having been as- 
sociated with one who has risen from comparative 
obscurity, reached the highest pinnacle of great- 
ness in the councils of his adopted country, and 
won for himself the most coveted honour Eng- 
land's Queen can bestow. 
With kind regards, 

I remain, 

Yours sincerely, 


I go, my native land, far o'er 

The solitary sea, 
To regions, where the very stars 

Of Heaven will strangers be, 

To some untrodden wilderness 

Of Australasia's land, — 
A home, which man has here denied, 

I seek at God's own hand. 

I have a mother, ill and poor, 

A father, too, in years, 
And have no parting gift for them, 

No ! nothing save my tears. 

I leave them in a busy town, 

Where pale mechanics toil 
In irksome manufactories, 

Shut from the sun and soil. 



Fair visions yet, my native land, 

Will o'er my lone heart come. 
Whene'er I think of friendship's haunts, 

Or childhood's peaceful home. 

Or love's delightful wanderings, 

When she, who shares my lot. 
First plucked from 'mong the violets 

The sweet forget-me-not. 

And then the beauty of such dreams 

Will radiate o'er my heart. 
Till bitterly I weep, to think 

That we were forced to part. 

And Heaven two sinless infants lent, 
Whose graves are told with thine — 

They came and went so angel-like, 
I dare not call them mine. 

And memory, wlien her mystic chain 

Back o'er the past she flings. 
Nothing so beautiful as they 

From all her treasures brings. 

For their sweet sakes, my native land ! 

Even if I loved not thee. 
My heart would hover o'er thee still. 

Where'er my home might be ! 

152 A P PEN BIX 

Where will my home be 1 I'll not ask ; 

I would not now be told ! 
Enough to know 'tis God who will 

Tn all my being hold, 

I do not know what lovely flowers 
May deck the new world's vales ; 

Ijut, though the brightest bloom abound, 
If spring no piirarose hails, 

Ith) absent beauties I shall mourn, 
For I have loved that flower ; 

And my heart's friends have loved it too 
From childhood's earliest hour. 


The moonlight of a milder clime 
Is round me pour'd o'er scenes sublime ; 
But I would fly from nil earth's light 
And grandeur to behold to-night 

My native land ! 

To-morrow's sua will beauteous ribc 
In x\ustralasia's summer skies ; 
But more than beautiful to me 
Would winter's wildest morning be 

In that dear land ! 

'Twould almost seem that peace and love 
Here reign as o'er those realms above ; 
But, oh ! the counter-charm of home 
Is found not yet, wliere'er I roam, 
O'er sea or land ! 

And greenwoods wave which ne'er are sere 
In this December summer iiere ; 
But 1 would turn from Eden's bloom 
To hail, in winter's waste and gloom, 
My native land ! 



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Mrs. John Sands, Marmion, Waverley 
Mr, J. M. Sandy, 271 George Street, Sydney 
Mr. E. Sansome, 339 Elizabeth Street, Sydney 

Mr. W. T. Seaward, Belle Vue, Ashiield 

Mr. Edmund Selby, Wigram Road, Forest Lodge ... 
The Hon. Mr. Justice Simpson, Cloncorick, Darling 


Mrs. Simson, Temple Leigh, Croydon 

Mr. R. W. Skinner, Bookseller, Sydney 

Mr. Geo. J. Sly, LL.D., George Street, Sydney ... 

Mr. Bruce Smith, 149 Phillip Street, Sydney 

Miss Emily Burdett-Smith, 203 Macquarie Street 

North, Sydney... 

Mrs. J. Smith, Hanarth, Bathurst 

Mr. T. L. Smith, Bookseller, Sydney 

Mr. Henry Spiers, Amphitheatre, Victoria 

Mr. H. Peden Steel, 98 Pitt Street, Sydney 
Mr. David Storey, M.P., 81 York Street, Sydney 
Professor Anderson Stuart, M. i^., The Octagon, 
Darling Point ... 

Mr Walter S. Syer, Acacia, Neutral Bay 

Miss Taplin, Matron of the Infants' Home, Ashfield 



Mr. John Taylor, Church Street, Parramatta 
Mr. J. C. TnoM, Solicitor for Railways, Sydney 
Capt. W. C. Thomson, A. U.S.N. Company ... 
Miss M. Thorne, Prestoaville, Potts Point ... 

Dr. R. C. Thorp, North Parramatta 

Mr. a. a. p. Tiohe, Waratah 

Mr. Jamks T. Tillock, Kent Street, Sydney 

Mr. Alexander H. Turnbcll, Wellington, N.Z. .. 

Mr. Henry Turner, Bank of New South Wales, 


Messrs. Turner and Henderson, Booksellers, Sydney 25 

Mr. R. p. Tweeddy, Llandilo, Penrith 

Mr. James R. Tyrrell, 3 Glebe Road, Sydney 

Mr. J. L. Waddell, Quambone 

Mr. Critchett Walker, C.M.G., Chief Secretary's 

Office, Sydney ... 

Rev. John Walker, Braeside, Woollahra 

Mr. J. T. Walker, Rosemoat, Woollahra 

Mr. Robt. C. Walker, Moolwa, near Merrylaads ... 
The Hon. James Watson, M.L.C, Glanworth, 

Darling Point ... ... ... .„ 

Mr. Samuel Watson, Institute for Deaf and Blind, 


The Hon. Chief Justice Way, Supreme Court, Adelaide 

Mrs. Wener, Greenwells, Walcha 

Wesleyan Book Depot, Sydney 

Mil. Thomas Whitley, Blackheath ... 

Mr. VV alter Wilson, Chief Secretary's Office, Sydney 

Sir William Windeyer, LL.D., Tomago, Hunter River 

Mr. B. R. Wise, Phillip Street, Sydney 

Mr. Holyoake Woodd, Rockhampton, Queensland 

Mr. Charles Young, Hilltop, Garland 

The Hon. J. H. Young, Public Works Office, Sydney 
The Hon. Sir William A. Zeal, Melbourne 



Publications, Pages 1 to 15, 
Announcements, Page 16. 

London and Edinburgh: Young J. Pknii-and.' 
Glasgow : James Maclehose & Sons. 

89 Castlereagh Street, 

SYDNEY— October, 1S96. 




By Henry Laivson. 

Author of While the, Billy BoiU. 

Fifth thousand, tcith portrait and vignette title. Groion Svo., cloth, 

gilt top, 5s. ; post free, 5s. 5d. 


French Morocco, limp, with gilt edges, gilt line, lettered back and side 
Rutland „ ,, round corners, „ ,, ,, ,, 

,, .. vadd 



s. d. 
8 6 


14 6 
16 6 


In the Days when the World 

was Wide 
Faces in the Street 
The Roaring Days 
' For'ard ' 

The Drover's Sweetheart 
Out Back 

The Free-selector's Daughter 
Sez You 

Andy's Gone with Cattle 
Jack Dunn, of Nevertire 
Trooper Campbell 
When your Pants begin to Go 
The Glass on the Bar 
The Shanty on the Rise 
The Vagabond 

Middleton's Rouseabout 
The Ballad of the Drover 
Taking his Chance 
When the ' Army ' prays for 

Wreck of the ' Derry Castle' 
Ben Duggan 
The Star of Australasia 
The Great Grey Plain 

The Song of Old Joe Swallow 
Corny Bill 
Lake Eliza 
Up the Country 
Knocked Up 
The Blue Mountains 
The City Bushman 
Mount Buckaroo 
Ross's Farm 
The Teams 
Cameron's Heart 
The Shame of Going Back 
Since Then 

Peter Anderson and Co. 
When the Children come Home 
Dan the Wreck 
Prouder Man than You 
The Song and the Sigh 
The Cambakoora Star 
Skeleton Flat 
Marshall's Mate 
The Poets of the Tomb 
The Ghost 

Australian Bards and Bush 

London and Edinburgh : Young J. Pentland. 



PRESS NOTICES of " Jn the Days when the World ivan Wide." 

In the course of a three-page notice in The Idler for August, Mr. 
Richard le Gallienne says : — " A striking volume of ballad 
poetry. ... A volume to console one for the tantalising 
postponement of Mr. Kipling's promised volume of Sea 

*' The verses have natural vigour, the writer has a rough, true 
faculty of characterisation, and the book is racy of the soil from 
cover to cover. . . . Space forbids anything in the way of 
quotation, and we can do no more than call attention to the 
breezy sweep of such lines as those in ' In the Days when the 
World was Wide,' the pitiless realism of 'Out Back,' the 
quaint moralising in ' For'ard,' the grim fatalism of * Taking 
his Chance,' the reflective insight in parts of such pieces as 
'Faces in the Street,' ' Peter Anderson and Co.,' the ring of 
'The Roaring Days,' and the hopeless note of monotony in 
' The Great Grey Plain.' " — Sydney Morning Herald. 

" We can say of this book as a whole that it will rank as one of our 
most treasured possessions, and we cannot too highly recommend 
it to our readers." — New Zealand Mail. 

" *In the Days when the World was Wide,' and other verses, by 
Henry Lawson, is poetry, and some of it poetry of a very high 
order. — Melbourne Acje. 

" It is with no small degree of pleasure that we welcome the selection 
of his poems just published." — The Queenslander. 

" How graphic he is, how natural, how true, how strong '" — Bvlletin, 

" We have for many years had a notion that Henry Lawson possesses 
genius of the rarest and finest kind, and the reading and re- 
reading of these collected pieces has confirmed our faith." — New 
Zealand Weekly Press. 

"What Kipling has done for ' Tommy Atkins ' in the great Indian 
colony, Lawson has done for the silent wanderer on the dreary 
Australian plains." — Town and Country Journal. 

" Lawson has much of the grim, fascinating mixture of humour and 
pathos that was once deemed Bret Harte's own." — Canterbury 

"There are grand songs in it, with a cheery swing, that are full of 
the odour of the gum bush, that are resonant with the sounds 
of Australian life." — Sydney Stock and Station Journal. 

London and Edinburgh : Young J. Fentland. 




By A. B. Paterson ("The Banjo"). 

Tenth thousand, ivith portrait and vignette title. Crown 8vo. , cloth, 
gilt top, 5s. ; post free, 5s. 5d. 


s. d. 

French Morocco, limp, with gilt edges, gilt line, lettered hack and side 8 6 
Rutland „ „ round corners, „ „ ,, ,, 13 

,, ,, padded „ „ ,, „ „ 14 6 

Turkey „ limp „ ,, „ „ „ 16 6 

„ ,, padded „ „ ,, ,, „ IS 


" At his best he compares not unfavourably with the author of 
'Barrack Room Ballads.'" — The Times. 

" He shows real poetical power." — Pall Mall Gazette, 

"These lines have the true lyrical cry in them. Eloquent and 
ardent verses."— Spectator. 

" It has the saving grace of humour ; a deal of real laughter and a 
dash of real tears." — The Scotsman. 

" We turn to Mr. Paterson's roaring muse with instantaneous 
gratitude." — Literary World, 

" The poet has also a note of pathos, which is always wholesome." — 
Glasgoiv Herald. 

The material is new as the treatment is artistic." — Black and 

" True poetical spirit, keen observation, and a capital swing of 
metre in this interesting volume." — Manchester Courier. 

" Mr. Paterson can produce charming poetry in sweet and natural 
language." — North British Advertiser, 

London: Macmillan and Co., Limited, 




" This book would be a capital companion on a holiday trip, for the 

epithet ' dull ' cannot be applied to a single line of it. "^IFes^ej'n 

Daily P^-etiS. 
"But Australia has produced in Mr. A. B. Paterson a national poet, 

whose bush ballads are as distinctly characteristic of the country 

as Burns's poetry is characteristic of Scotland." — Weslminster 



" There is hope for the Australian poet when a volume of verse goes 
into its third edition within six weeks of its first publication, 
and great encouragement is to be extracted from the fact that 
the success of the book is entirely justified by the quality of its 
contents." — Melbourne Argus. 

"Certainly no such distinctive verse has appeared among us for 
years." — Sydney Morninrj Herald. 

"A collection of really admirable poems." — The Queen-slander. 

"A welcome addition to the scanty roll of writers of distinctively 
Australian verse. The writer knows how to tell a stirring 
incident in a spirited and vigorous manner, and the local 
colouring is exact and truthful." — Australasian. 

"The four bush ballads just mentioned are to be heard all over 
Australia — in every station hut from Cape York to Wilson's 
Promontory, from Cape Palmerston to Shark Bay — wherever 
white man has settled." — Brisbane Courier. 

". . . the stirring bush ballads of Mr. A. B. Paterson, widely 
known as ' The Banjo,' and author of the immortal verses 
about Clancy of the Overflow." — Melbourne Age. 

" There is a lilt and go in his verses which are highly inspiriting." — 
Melbourne Leader. 

" We will go one better even than Rolf Bold re wood, and claim for 
Mr. Paterson's verse a certain ring that has no counterpart in 
Gordon or any other poet of our land." — S. A. Register. 

"The body of what lies between these covers is in some respects 
distinctly better, as Australian Literature, than the few of 
Gordon's poems in which the local element has been made 
unmistakable." — Sydney Daily Telegraph. 

" The best book published in Australia for very many years." — J- 
Brunton Stephens. 

London : Macmillan and Co. , Limited. 




The Bushman's Song, " I'm travelling down the Castle- 
leagh ancM'm a station hand." Words by A. B. Paterson, 
Music by E. P. Truman. 23. net ; post free, 2s. 2d. 

Last Week. " Oh! the new chum went to the back block 

run, but he should have gone there last week." Humorous song, 

words by A. B. Paterson, music by E. P. Truman. 2s. net ; 

post free, 2s. 2d. 
" ' A Bushman's Song,' with its capital chorus, has been wedded to 

a firm and spirited melody, and there is a vein of quaint melody 

in ' Last Week ' which fairly suits the humour of the verse." — 

Sydney Morning Herald. 
" The songs are musical, and should quickly become popular." — 

Neivcafitle Morning Herald. 
"We can highly recommend the 'Bushman's Song' and 'Last 

Week ' to vocalists in search of good songs." — Launceston Daily 

" Strikingly attractive airs." — Walgett News. 
"Songs characteristic of the Australian bush. Music excellently 

placed." — Wagga Express. 
" ' Last Week ' is a rattling good song . . . full of dash. In 

' The Bushman's Song ' author and composer are again in 

touch." — Richmond Eiver Exjyress. 

Daylight is Dying. Words* by A. B. Paterson, Music by 
Rene Goring-Thomas. 2s. net ; post free, 2s. 2d. 

* The first twelve lines of " Daylight is Dying " are from " The 
Man from Snowy Biver;" the remaining twelve have been specially 
written by Mr. Paterson for this song. 

" ' The Daylight is Dying ' should prove popular.'' — Sydney Morning 

"A very attractive and melodious song." — Daily Telegraph. 

"The easy range of the song, coupled with its simplicity and sweet- 
ness, should make it a general favourite." — Educational Gazette, 

" This pretty song only requires to be known to become very 
popular." — The Presbyterian. 

" Altogether, it it a very beautiful song.'' — Evening Neios. 

" The simple grace of the music is in harmony with the words." — 
Town and Country Journal. 



By Hemy Lawson. 

Author of In the Dayn lohen the World ivas Wide. 

Fourth Thousand, Croicn Sro., doth, gilt top, ivith eight fidl -page 2}lcites 

and vignette title hy F. P. Mahony, 5s. ; post free, 5s. 6d. 


An Old Mate of Your Father'.^ 

Settling on the Land 

Enter Mitchell 

Stifiher and Jim 

When the Sun Went Down 

The Man Who Forgot 


A Camp-Fire Yarn 

His Country— After All 

A Day on a Selection 

That There Dog o' Mine 

Going Blind 

Arvie Aspinall's Alarm Clock 


The Union Buries Its Dead 

On the Edge of a Plain 

In a Dry Season 

He'd Come Back 

Another of Mitchell's Plans for 

the Future 
Drifted Back 
The Drover's Wife 
Mitchell Doesn't Believe in the 

Shooting the Moon 
His Father's Mate 

An Echo from the Old Bark 

The Shearing of the Cook's Dog 
Dossing Out and Camping 
Across the Straits 
Steelman's Pupil 
An Unfinished Love Story 
Board and Residence 
His Colonial Oath 
Some Day 

A Visit of Condolence 
In a Wet Season 

Mitchell : a Character Sketch 
The Bush Undertaker 
Our Pipes 
Coming Across — a Study in 

the Steerage 
Tlie Story of Malachi 
Two Dogs and a Fence 
Jones's Alley 
Brummy Usen 
Bogg of Geebung 
She Wouldn't Speak 
The Geological Spieler 
Macquarie's Mate 
Baldy Thompson 
For Auld Lang Syne 

With enough realism in them to furnish forth the literary stock- 
in-trade of a wilderness of pseudo-Australian novelists and 
story-tellers. The book is admirably illustrated with eight 
pictures by Mr. Frank Mahony." — Sydney Morning Herald. 



PRESS NOTICES of " While the Billy Boils " (cmtinued) 

" The collection of short stories just published from the pen of Mr. 
Henry Lawson entitio their author to honourable rank among 
writers of Australian fiction. . . . Mr. Lawson appears to know 
his subject thoroughly, which is one great recommendation, and 
he shows undeniable skill in handling it, which is another. . . . 
No other Australian writer we bring to mind could do such 
work as this with more graphic power and certainty of touch." 
— The Argus. 

" While the Billy Boils " gives Mm an assured place amongst the 

few Australian prose writers it is impossible to 

deny it very high praise indeed." — Revieio of Reviews (Australian 

" There is both humour and pathos in the volume, which deserves 
to be read not only for the amusement it contains, but also for 
its faithful delineation of some characteristic aspects of 
Australian \iie."—The Australasian. 

" The best book on Australian bush life ever published, we call it, 
without the slightest reservation." — New Zealand Mail. 

"It is strong, fresh, and healthy ; it constitutes in the present a 
delightful spur to association and reminiscence ; it will become 
in the future a social history ; and, finally, it is a book of which 
all Australasian readers should feel proud to think it was written 
by a compatriot."— Oiar/o Witness. 

*' We might easily fill several pages of The Queenslander without 
wearying the reader." — The Queenslander. 

" They form the most excellent and, in a literary sense, the most 
faultless, set of delineations of bush and back-blocks life which 
has yet been produced in Australia." — Daily Telegrajjh. 

*' Its pages give us Australia in a hundred phases of character, of 
episode, and of scenery. He is gifted, indeed, who knows his 
Australia as Lawson knows it." — Bathurst Free Press. 

" The author tells a story in the most effective way. He wastes no 
words ; but, using the most fit phrases, he makes vividly clear 
what he wants the reader to apprehend." — Maitland Mercury. 

" Bush sketches, all written closely and tersely, and all painting 
pictures so wholly true to nature that in his mind's eye the 
reader can see the two selectors leaning over the slip-rail, yarn- 
ing. . . ." — Melbourne Sportsman. 

"The great world that peoples the bush, good and bad, all touched 
with the touch of actuality, which can only come from the man 
who has lived through that of which he writes." — Sydney Mail. 



PRESS NOTICES of " While the Billy Boils " {continued) 

"Mr. Lawson has taken the swagsman by the hand and has intro- 
duced him to the English-speaking public." — Sydney Freeman's 

" Lawson is a true son of the Australian bush, a genius to the 
finger tips." — Oundagai Times. 

•'The book is bright lively reading in every page it contains." — 
Tasmanian Mail. 

" Mr. Lawson is in the very first rank amongst Australian story- 
tellers. " — Bendigo Independent. 

*' Raises Mr. Lawson at one bound to a place in the foremost rank 
of typically Australian writers." — Goxdhurn Post. 

" Many of them are of thrilling interest and with touches of pathos 
here and there." — Southland Times. 

•'Lawson's work is certainly literature of a high order." — Timivorth 

" We have no hesitation in saying that it is the best collection of 
short stories ever brought out in this colony." — Madeay Argus. 

" The volume is most captivating reading." — Maitland Mercury. 

" The book is Australian to the core, without the faults ot the 
ordinary tepid Australian Literature, with which we are, alas, 
too often afflicted." — Machay Merctcry, 

" As Marcus Clarke has written the greatest Australian novel, so 
Lawson has penned the best collection of Australian Stories." — 
Dungog Chronicle. 


By Sir Henry ParJces, G.C.M.G. 

With Preface and Notes by Annie T. Parkes. 

Printed on Dutch hand-made paper, in Crown Svo. , cloth, gilt top, 
imce, 6s. ; j)ost free, 6s. //.d. 

Note by the Publishers. 

This volume contain the letters of Henry Parkes to his sister 
Sarah during the periods immediately preceding and succeed in 



his emigration to Australia (1838-43). They record his struggles 
for bread in London, his voyage in an emigrant ship, and the hard 
experiences of his first two or three years in New South Wales. 
Sometimes, in a lighter vein, they tell of his high hopes and aspira- 
tions ; of his poetical efi"orts ; of his animal pets ; of his scanty but 
much-treasured collection of books ; and last, but not least, of his 
passionate love of Home and Kindred. To these have been added a 
few other letters, including a charming one to his wife, written on 
board ship in Sydney Harbour while on duty as Custom House 
Officer. Those who are acquainted with his epistolary style will be 
deeply interested in these early specimens ; and all must, we think, 
agree with us that these charming letters, which convey actual 
impressions at the time of writing, and which were penned without 
thought of publication, are, from many points of view, much more 
valuable than mere autobiography. 


By Ernest Rohin. 

Fcap. Svo., paper covers. Is. ; post free, Is. 2d. 


By J. W. SPRINGTHORPE, M.D., Lecturer on Dietetics, 
&c., in the University of Melbourne, and GEORGE LANE 
MULLINS, M.D., Physician to the Hospice for the Dying, 
Sydney. Oblong 8vo., cloth, 6s. ; post free, 6s. 4d. 

" This is a book suitable for the pocket or handbag, and contains 
160 diet lists of twelve different kinds, viz. : — 1, Albuminuria ; 
2, Anffimia and Debility ; 3, Biliousness ; 4, Constipation ; 5, 
Convalescence ; 6, Diabetes ; 7, Diarrhoea ; 8. Dyspepsia ; 9, 
Gout ; 10, Infant Feeding ; 11, Phthisis and Wasting Disease ; 
and 12, Pyrexia. These are also so arranged that a record of 
particulars of each case can be retained on a butt, whilst the 



DETACHABLE DIET LISTS, &c. (continued) 

sheet containing the special diet With instructions for itS 
preparation, when necessary, can be torn off at a perforated 
section and handed to the patient. . . . We cannot close 
this notice without special commendation of Dietary 10, con- 
taining explicit instructions for infant feeding for the different 
weeks and months of an infant's early life. In the compilation 
of this alone the authors become the benefactors to children and 
the saviours of infantile life. VVe most warmly recommend this 
book as an essential companion to every practitioner in his con- 
sulting room and on his rounds of visits, being, as it is, a very 
useful means for readily responding to that often-asked and 
puzzling question — 'And what about the diet. Doctor?'" — 
Australasian Medical Gazette, May, 1896. 

" The lists now under consideration have been compiled to suit 
especially Australian and New Zealand practitioners. The 
authors have done their work in a manner reflecting the greatest 
credit upon themselves, and these lists will, we feel certain, 
become widely used among us." — New Zealand Medical Journal, 
July, 1896. 

Dr. William Bland. 

Account of the Duel between William Bland and Robert 
Case and the circumstances that led thereto, drawn up for pos- 
terity by Dr. William Bland. From the original MS. in Dr. 
Bland's Autograph, to which is appended a report of the trial 
Rex v. Bland. Randall and Fulton, before the Recorder of Bom- 
bay, 14th and 17th April, 1813. With facsimile oj Dr. Bland's 
Autograph. (Only 33 copies printed, each numbered and signed.) 
4to., half hound. 25s. [Only a few copies remain. 

First Expedition Across the Blue Mountains. 

Blaxland's Journal of a Tour of Discovery across the Blue 
Mountains in N.S.W. Aline for line reproduction of the very 
scarce original edition of 1823, Only 55 copies printed, each 
numbered and signed, Croion 8vo., hand-made pajier, half 
morocco. 10s, 6d. [Only a feiv copies remain 

Rev. J. Milne Curran, B .G.S. 

Contribution to the Microscopic Structure of some 
Australian Rocks, With three plates. Sio., seicn. 3s. ; post 
free, 3s. 2d. 



Rev. J. Milne Curran, F.G.S. 

Contribution to the GeoloEjy and Petrography of 

Bathurst, New South Wales. With four 'plattn. Svo., sewn, 3s. ; 
post free, 3s. 2d. 

Directory for Public Worshij?. 

Directory for the Public Worship of God in the Presbyterian 
Churches of Australia and Tasmania. Approved by the 
Federal Assembly, and recommended for adoption by Ministers 
of the Churches. Cloth. Is. 6d. ; post free. Is. 8d, 

A. a Geikie, D.D., LL.I . 

The Presbyterian Union of 1865 and notices of some who 
wrought it. Fcap. Svo., sewn, Is. ; post free, Is. Id, 

Dr. Samuel T. K^iaggs. 

Dr. De Lion — Clairvoyant. Confessions of a vagabond life 
in Australia, as narrated by Maiben Brook. Svo., sewn, Is. 
post free. Is. 3d. 

Henry Laivson. 

In the Days When the World was Wide and other Verses. 
Edition de Luxe on Large Paper, -with portait of Author. 
Limited to 50 copies, each numbered and signed. [Out of print 

F. Milford, M.D. 

An Australian Handbook of Obstetric Nursing, compiled 
for the use of Midwives and Nurses. With over 00 illustrations. 
Fcap. Svo., Paper covers, 2s. 6J. ; post free, 2s. lOd. ; cloth, 
3s. 6d. ; post free, 3s. lOd. 

Dr. George Lane Mullins. 

Register of Administrations of Anaesthetics for use in 
Hospitals, Public Institutions and Private Practice. 4to., cloth, 
5s. ; post free, 5s. 6d. 



W. H. W. Nicholls, B.A. 

Livy.— Book XX VT. (University Text Book for 1897). 
With Introduction and Notes. Crown 8vo., boards, 3s. 6d. ; 
post free, 3s. 9d. 

A. G. Ralston, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 

Divorce Law, with all the Acts and Rules now in force 
relating to Marriage, Divorce and all matters Matrimonial. 
8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. ; -post free, 7s. lOd. 

Junior English Text Book for 1897. 

Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream, with notes by 
K. Deighton. Is. ; post free. Is. 2d. 
*^* This is prescribed for the New South Wales Junior Public 
Examination of 1897. The present Australian Edition is published 
at Is. by arrangement with Messrs. Macmillan and Co., who issued 
the English Edition in 1891 at Is. 9d. It is unnecessary to say any- 
thing about the excellence of Messrs. Macmillan's publications, and 
books with Deighton's notes are already favourably known in 


Grammar and Derivation Book 2d. 

Table Book and Mental Arithmetic ... ... ... .„ Id. 

Geography — Part I., Australasia .. ... ... .. ... 2d. 

,, Part II., Europe, Asia, Africa, and America ... 2d. 

,, The two parts in one ... ... ... ... ... 4d. 

Spelling Book for Second Australian Reader ... ... ... 2d. 

„ ., Third „ „ 2d. 

,, ,, Fourth ,, ,, 2d. 

English History, Part I., 55 B.C. to 1485 A.D 2d. 

„ „ Part II., 1485 A.D. to Victoria 2d. 

Australian History ... ... ... ... ... 2d. 

Euclid, Book I. 2d. 

,, ,, II., with Exercises on Books I. and II 2d. 

,, ,, I. and II. (combined) ... ... ... ... 4d. 

Arithmetic: Home Exercises for Class III. 2d. 

,, Home Exercises for Class lY. 2d. 

,, Answers to above each 2d. 




In Ten Numbers, 2d. each. 


The Australian Copy Book Blotter, Id. 


An Expert's Opinion.— Sydney, 26th May, 1896.— The series 
is a capital one from start to finish, and compares most favourably 
with the more popular copy books published at home, both as re- 
gards style of writing and the general ' get up ' of the work. 
James Bruce, Professor of Writing, 

Sydney Gram. School, St. Ignatius Coll., etc. 

Australian Joint Stock Bank, Ltd., Sydney, 20th May, 1896. 

— The style of writing aimed at is in my opinion a great improve - 
ment upon the old sloping characters. — \Vm. Reid, Secretary. 

Australian Mutual Provident Society, Sydney, 20th May, 

1896. —I think your Australian Copy Books are admirably adapted 
to enable pupils to acquire a thoroughly good commercial style of 
handwriting. — Richard Teece, General Manager. 

Bank of Australasia, Sydney, 15th May, 1896.— I am of 
opinion that the style of handwriting adopted in your new series is 
strikingly clear and legible, and is specially suitable for banking and 
commercial book-keeping and correspondence. — A. Hellicar, Gen. 

BankofN.S.W., Sydney, 20th May, 1896.— Your Copy Books 
seem well calculated to lay the foundation of a good mercantile 
handwriting. — J. RussELL FRENCH, General Manager. 

Bank of New Zealand, Sydney, 20th May, 1896.— Your books 
are in my opinion very suitable for general commercial requirements. 
— T. J. Parfitt, General Manager. 

City Bank of Sydney, Sth May, 1896.— I consider the style of 
writing as developed in the series very suitable for use in business. 
— C. Stanton, General Manager. 




Department of Lands, N. S. Wales, Sydney, 29th May, 1S96. 
— The style of writing appears to be well calculated to form an 
upright roundhand which I think the most desirable on account of 
its legibility. — VA'', Houston, Under-Secretary for Lands. 

General Post Office, Sydney, 13th May, 1896.— I find the 
Australian Copy Books admirably adapted to encourage the for- 
mation of a free business style. A wise departure from old rigid 
forms has been made, and a style more in conformity with actual 
commercial requirements kept steadily in view. — Joseph Cook, 
Postmaster- General. 

Messrs. W. Gardiner and Co., Sydney, 21 st May, 1896. -I 

beg to say that, in my opinion, the style of writing used in your new 
Australian Copy Books is clear, legible, and suitable in every way 
for commercial purposes. — Wm. H. Hoskinos, General Manager. 

Mutual Life Association of Australasia, Sydney, I3th May, 

1896. — I congratulate you on issuing a set of copy books which is so 
great an improvement upon any I have heretofore seen. — J, C. 
Remington, General Manager. 

Messrs. Goldsbrough, Mort and Co., Ltd., Sydney, 20th 

May, 1S96.— I have pleasure in expressing complete approval of the 
style of writing adopted in your series. I am satisfied that the 
publication of your Copy Book is a distinct step in the right direc- 
tion, and trust that it will be generally taken advantage of by 
teachers both in our public and private schools. — George Maiden, 
General Manager. 

Messrs. Gibbs, Bright and Co., Sydney, 2lst May, 1896.— 

The Australian Copy Books appear admirably suited for the purpose 
intended, as the style of writing should develop a good business 
hand, while the commercial terms and forms afiford useful informa- 
tion as well as instruction, — A. W. Meeks, General Manager. 
Messrs, Lark, Sons and Co., Ltd., Sydney, I4th May, 1896.— 

The style of penmanship is both clear and bold, and should prove a 
boon to the mercantile world generally. — E. L. Truman, Secretary. 

Messrs. Winehcombe, Carson and Co., Sydney, sth May, 

1896. — Likely to result in the acquirement of a good, clear com- 
mercial hand.— F. E. Winchcombe. 

Messrs. Robert Reid and Co., Sydney, 20th May, 1896 — 

Your Australian Copy Books are certainly an excellent set and 
compare favourably with the best of the imported article we have 
seen. — Wm. Johnstone, General Manager. 




Savings Bank of N.S.W., Sydney, 13th May, 1896.— I beg to 
express the opinion that they appear well designed to give young 
people a knowledge of a good clear business hand. — George 
Richard Dibbs, General Manager. 


Open to all Pupils in the Schools of Australasia. 

One Gold Medal, one Silver Medal, and 118 Book Prizes to the 

value of £30. 


The following prizes will be awarded to pupil teachers for the 

best written set of the Australian Copy Book, Nos. 1 to 10 inclusive: 

1st prize ... Gold medal. 
2nd ,, ... Silver medal. 
3rd ,, ... Books value 25s. 

4th prize ... Books value 20s. 
5th ,, ... „ „ 15s. 
6th ,, ... „ ,, 10s. 

For further particulars apply to the publishers. 

Rev. J. Milne Curran, F.G.S. 

Elementary Geology for Australian Students, with about 
200 illustrations, mostly of Australian subjects. By Rev. 
John Milne Ccrran, Lecturer in Geology, Department of 
Technical Education, N. S. \V. [In jireparation. 

Victor J. Daley. 

Poems. By Victor J. Daley. [Shortly. 

Edward Dyson. 

Rhymes from the Mines and other Lines. By Edward 
Dyson, Author of A Golden Shanty. [Shortly. 

John Farrell. 
My Sundowner and other Poems, By John Farrell, 

Author of Hoiv he Died. [Shortly. 

Barcroft H. Boake. 
Poems. By Barcroft H. Boake. Edited, with memoir, 
by A. G. Stephens. [In preparation. 

Wbbsdale, Shoosmith and Co., Printers, ll? Clarence-st., Sydney. 


Los Angeles 
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